# 0.7 Titration  (Page 2/4)

 Page 2 / 4

## Ph plots

The pH values are plotted against the volume of titrant (acid or base). Except for weak acid – weak base, there is a sharp change in pH value at the equivalence point. The plot is almost parallel to pH axis. The sharp range at equivalence point is due to the fact that pH itself is a logarithm function of hydrogen ion concentration. The gradual change away from equivalence point is explained on the basis of buffering effect of acid or base as the case be.

## Strong acid – strong base

The reaction considered here is :

$NaOH\left(aq\right)+HCl\left(aq\right)\to NaCl\left(aq\right)+{H}_{2}O$

In the pH plot in which acid is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is 14 due to strong base (NaOH). As strong acid is added, pH is almost flat till the equivalence point volume, when there is sharp drop in pH value. The extent of drop or rise depends on the reaction rate, which is very fast for strong acid- strong base reaction. The pH drop at equivalence point can induce color change in either of two indicators as drop in pH covers color change range for two indicators.

In the pH plot in which base is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is near zero due to strong acid (HCl). As strong base is added, pH is almost flat in the beginning till the equivalence point volume, when there is sharp rise in pH value. The pH increase at equivalence point can induce color change in either of two indicators as rise in pH covers color change range for two indicators.

$\text{volume of HCl used}=\text{volume acid required for neutralization of NaOH}$

This means that :

$\text{geq of HCl}=\text{geq of NaOH (indicator : methyl orange or phenolphthalein)}$

## Strong acid – weak base

The reaction considered here is :

$N{H}_{4}OH\left(aq\right)+HCl\left(aq\right)\to N{H}_{4}Cl\left(aq\right)+{H}_{2}O$

In the pH plot in which acid is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is about 11 due to weak base ( $N{H}_{4}OH$ ). As strong acid (HCl) is added, pH drops gently till the equivalence point volume. The extent of drop in pH is lesser in comparison to strong acid - strong base reaction as reaction rate is relatively slower. The pH drop at equivalence point is shorter and can induce color change in methyl orange only.

In the pH plot in which base is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is near zero due to strong acid (HCl). As weak base is added, pH is almost flat in the beginning till the equivalence point volume, when there is sharp rise in pH value. The pH rise at equivalence point is shorter and can induce color change in methyl oranage only.

$\text{volume of HCl used}=\text{volume acid required for neutralization of}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}N{H}_{4}OH$

This means that :

$\text{geq of HCl}=\text{geq of NH4OH (indicator : methyl orange)}$

## Weak acid – strong base

The reaction considered here is :

$C{H}_{3}COOH\left(aq\right)+NaOH\left(aq\right)\to C{H}_{3}COONa\left(aq\right)+{H}_{2}O$

In the pH plot in which acid is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is about 14 due to strong base (NaOH). As weak acid (HCl) is added, pH drops gently till the equivalence point volume. The extent of drop in pH is lesser in comparison to strong acid - strong base reaction as reaction rate is relatively slower. The pH drop at equivalence point is shorter and can induce color change in phenolphthalein only.

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!