# 0.7 Titration  (Page 2/4)

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## Ph plots

The pH values are plotted against the volume of titrant (acid or base). Except for weak acid – weak base, there is a sharp change in pH value at the equivalence point. The plot is almost parallel to pH axis. The sharp range at equivalence point is due to the fact that pH itself is a logarithm function of hydrogen ion concentration. The gradual change away from equivalence point is explained on the basis of buffering effect of acid or base as the case be.

## Strong acid – strong base

The reaction considered here is :

$NaOH\left(aq\right)+HCl\left(aq\right)\to NaCl\left(aq\right)+{H}_{2}O$

In the pH plot in which acid is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is 14 due to strong base (NaOH). As strong acid is added, pH is almost flat till the equivalence point volume, when there is sharp drop in pH value. The extent of drop or rise depends on the reaction rate, which is very fast for strong acid- strong base reaction. The pH drop at equivalence point can induce color change in either of two indicators as drop in pH covers color change range for two indicators.

In the pH plot in which base is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is near zero due to strong acid (HCl). As strong base is added, pH is almost flat in the beginning till the equivalence point volume, when there is sharp rise in pH value. The pH increase at equivalence point can induce color change in either of two indicators as rise in pH covers color change range for two indicators.

$\text{volume of HCl used}=\text{volume acid required for neutralization of NaOH}$

This means that :

$\text{geq of HCl}=\text{geq of NaOH (indicator : methyl orange or phenolphthalein)}$

## Strong acid – weak base

The reaction considered here is :

$N{H}_{4}OH\left(aq\right)+HCl\left(aq\right)\to N{H}_{4}Cl\left(aq\right)+{H}_{2}O$

In the pH plot in which acid is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is about 11 due to weak base ( $N{H}_{4}OH$ ). As strong acid (HCl) is added, pH drops gently till the equivalence point volume. The extent of drop in pH is lesser in comparison to strong acid - strong base reaction as reaction rate is relatively slower. The pH drop at equivalence point is shorter and can induce color change in methyl orange only.

In the pH plot in which base is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is near zero due to strong acid (HCl). As weak base is added, pH is almost flat in the beginning till the equivalence point volume, when there is sharp rise in pH value. The pH rise at equivalence point is shorter and can induce color change in methyl oranage only.

$\text{volume of HCl used}=\text{volume acid required for neutralization of}\phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}N{H}_{4}OH$

This means that :

$\text{geq of HCl}=\text{geq of NH4OH (indicator : methyl orange)}$

## Weak acid – strong base

The reaction considered here is :

$C{H}_{3}COOH\left(aq\right)+NaOH\left(aq\right)\to C{H}_{3}COONa\left(aq\right)+{H}_{2}O$

In the pH plot in which acid is titrant, pH of the solution in the flask is about 14 due to strong base (NaOH). As weak acid (HCl) is added, pH drops gently till the equivalence point volume. The extent of drop in pH is lesser in comparison to strong acid - strong base reaction as reaction rate is relatively slower. The pH drop at equivalence point is shorter and can induce color change in phenolphthalein only.

how can chip be made from sand
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
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Rafiq
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Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
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Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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