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We are at liberty to specify these attributes. It is, however, recommended that we leave the arrangement to the system, which is rendering the mathematical content. It shall ensure consistency in the display, which follows the convention of mathematics as implemented by a particular renderer. The example below demonstrates how we can change the spacing different to default and against the form values as inferred from the context :

Determining "form" of an operator

<m:math display="block"> <m:mrow> <m:mo form="infix" rspace="10pt"> + </m:mo> <m:mi> a </m:mi> <m:mo form="prefix"> + </m:mo> <m:mi> b </m:mi> </m:mrow> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display lokks like :

+ a + b

Stretching of operators

Four attributes of “mo” element control stretching of operators. These attributes may assume following values :

    Attribute value types

  • stretchy : true | false
  • symmetric : true | false
  • maxsize : number [ v-unit | h-unit | namedspace | infinity
  • minsize : number [ v-unit | h-unit | namedspace

Among the operators, the requirement for stretching of fences, arrows, accents (angular cap on identifier) and separators are most profound and visible in mathematical expressions. For this reason, “strechy” attribute of fence and accent operators are set “true” in operator dictionary. Stretching of operators in an expression is restricted by “minsize” and “maxsize” attributes.

The stretchable operators are characterized as predominantly either vertically or horizontally stretchable. The fences, various kinds of vertical arrows (single or double), operators like ∏, ∑, ∫, “/” etc. are set to stretch vertically by default in operator directory.

When stretchable operator and non-stretchable terms are bounded by explicit or inferred “mrow” element, then the stretchable operator grows vertically to cover the non-stretchy term. Consider the example given here :

Vertical stretching

<m:math display="block"> <m:mrow> <m:mi> x </m:mi> <m:mo> = </m:mo> <m:mo> ( </m:mo> <m:mfrac> <m:mi>a</m:mi> <m:mi>b</m:mi> </m:mfrac> <m:mo> ) </m:mo> </m:mrow> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

x = ( a b )

We can, however, control the growth of parenthese by setting “maxsize” attribute to 1 i.e. equal to its normal size.

Vertical stretching

<m:math display="block"> <m:mrow> <m:mi> x </m:mi> <m:mo> = </m:mo> <m:mo maxsize="1"> ( </m:mo> <m:mfrac> <m:mi>a</m:mi> <m:mi>b</m:mi> </m:mfrac> <m:mo maxsize="1"> ) </m:mo> </m:mrow> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

x = ( a b )

Thus, setting "maxsize" attribute overrides the default behavior, which allows the parentheses to strech and cover the non-stretchy expression. Let us, now experiment with other than fence character like ∑ and observe their behavior with other terms :

Vertical stretching

<m:math display="block"> <m:mrow> <m:mo> &sum; </m:mo> <m:mo> ( </m:mo> <m:mfrac> <m:mi>A</m:mi> <m:mi>B</m:mi> </m:mfrac> <m:mo> ) </m:mo> </m:mrow> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

( A B )

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A primer in mathml. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10345/1.16
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