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We are at liberty to specify these attributes. It is, however, recommended that we leave the arrangement to the system, which is rendering the mathematical content. It shall ensure consistency in the display, which follows the convention of mathematics as implemented by a particular renderer. The example below demonstrates how we can change the spacing different to default and against the form values as inferred from the context :

Determining "form" of an operator

<m:math display="block"> <m:mrow> <m:mo form="infix" rspace="10pt"> + </m:mo> <m:mi> a </m:mi> <m:mo form="prefix"> + </m:mo> <m:mi> b </m:mi> </m:mrow> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display lokks like :

+ a + b

Stretching of operators

Four attributes of “mo” element control stretching of operators. These attributes may assume following values :

    Attribute value types

  • stretchy : true | false
  • symmetric : true | false
  • maxsize : number [ v-unit | h-unit | namedspace | infinity
  • minsize : number [ v-unit | h-unit | namedspace

Among the operators, the requirement for stretching of fences, arrows, accents (angular cap on identifier) and separators are most profound and visible in mathematical expressions. For this reason, “strechy” attribute of fence and accent operators are set “true” in operator dictionary. Stretching of operators in an expression is restricted by “minsize” and “maxsize” attributes.

The stretchable operators are characterized as predominantly either vertically or horizontally stretchable. The fences, various kinds of vertical arrows (single or double), operators like ∏, ∑, ∫, “/” etc. are set to stretch vertically by default in operator directory.

When stretchable operator and non-stretchable terms are bounded by explicit or inferred “mrow” element, then the stretchable operator grows vertically to cover the non-stretchy term. Consider the example given here :

Vertical stretching

<m:math display="block"> <m:mrow> <m:mi> x </m:mi> <m:mo> = </m:mo> <m:mo> ( </m:mo> <m:mfrac> <m:mi>a</m:mi> <m:mi>b</m:mi> </m:mfrac> <m:mo> ) </m:mo> </m:mrow> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

x = ( a b )

We can, however, control the growth of parenthese by setting “maxsize” attribute to 1 i.e. equal to its normal size.

Vertical stretching

<m:math display="block"> <m:mrow> <m:mi> x </m:mi> <m:mo> = </m:mo> <m:mo maxsize="1"> ( </m:mo> <m:mfrac> <m:mi>a</m:mi> <m:mi>b</m:mi> </m:mfrac> <m:mo maxsize="1"> ) </m:mo> </m:mrow> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

x = ( a b )

Thus, setting "maxsize" attribute overrides the default behavior, which allows the parentheses to strech and cover the non-stretchy expression. Let us, now experiment with other than fence character like ∑ and observe their behavior with other terms :

Vertical stretching

<m:math display="block"> <m:mrow> <m:mo> &sum; </m:mo> <m:mo> ( </m:mo> <m:mfrac> <m:mi>A</m:mi> <m:mi>B</m:mi> </m:mfrac> <m:mo> ) </m:mo> </m:mrow> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

( A B )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A primer in mathml. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10345/1.16
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