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Listing 1 . Beginning of the class named SquareWave.
import java.io.*; import java.nio.*;import java.util.*; public class SquareWave extends AudioSignalGenerator02{public SquareWave(AudioFormatParameters01 audioParams,String[] args,byte[] melody){super(audioParams,args,melody); }//end constructor

Beginning of the getMelody method

This method returns an array containing three seconds of monaural audio data for a square wave at 1000 Hz.

Listing 2 shows the beginning of the overridden getMelody method. (Recall that an abstract version of this method is inherited from the class named AudioSignalGenerator02 -- see Listing 9 )

The code in Listing 2 is essentially the same as the corresponding WhiteNoise code from the earlier module. Therefore, I won't discuss it further in this module.

Listing 2 . Beginning of the getMelody method.
byte[] getMelody(){//Recall that the default for channels is 1 for mono. System.out.println("audioParams.channels = " + audioParams.channels);//Each channel requires two 8-bit bytes per 16-bit sample.int bytesPerSampPerChan = 2;//Override the default sample rate. Allowable sample rates are 8000,11025, // 16000,22050,44100 samples per second.audioParams.sampleRate = 8000.0F;// Set the length of the melody in seconds double lengthInSeconds = 3.0;//Create an output data array sufficient to contain the melody// at "sampleRate" samples per second, "bytesPerSampPerChan" bytes per // sample per channel and "channels" channels.melody = new byte[(int)(lengthInSeconds*audioParams.sampleRate* bytesPerSampPerChan*audioParams.channels)]; System.out.println("melody.length = " + melody.length);

Required audio data format

As you learned in earlier modules, an object of the AudioPlayOrFile01 class accepts an object of the AudioFormatParameters01 class along with an audio data array object of type byte[] and a String object for a file name and uses that information to either play the data in the audio array immediately or write it into an audio output file oftype AU.

Normally the audio data array must be formatted in a specific way as partially defined by the contents of the AudioFormatParameters01 object. In the case of white noise, however, there is no order or organizationto the bytes of audio data. Therefore, our only requirement was to ascertain that the proper number of signed random byte values were used to populate the array.

That is not the case in this module. Our audio data is organized and we must meet the requiredformat for the audio array.

Given the values that we are using in the AudioFormatParameters01 object, the format requirements for monaural and stereo are shown below. (Note that in both cases, each audio value must be a signed 16-bit value decomposed into a pair of 8-bit bytes.)

Monaural, channels = 1

For mono, each successive pair of bytes in the array must contain one audio value. The element with the lower index must contain the most significanteight bits of the 16-bit audio value.

Stereo, channels = 2

For stereo, alternating pairs of bytes must each contain one audio value in the same byte order as for mono. One pair of bytes is routed to the left speaker and the other pair of bytes is routed to the right speaker (almost) simultaneously.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Accessible objected-oriented programming concepts for blind students using java. OpenStax CNX. Sep 01, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11349/1.17
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