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Verbal IQ (Wechsler Verbal Intelligence 3) Performance IQ (Wechsler Performance Intelligence 3)
Verbal IQ (Wechsler Verbal Intelligence 3)
Pearson Correlation 1 .664 **
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 1182 1180
Performance IQ (Wechsler Performance Intelligence 3)
Pearson Correlation .664 ** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 1180 1180
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
[In this matrix, it appears that four unique correlations are present, one per cell. In fact, only one unique correlation, or r , is present in this four cell matrix.]

Step six:

  • Check For Effect Size
  • 1. Go to the correlation box
  • 2. Find Pearson’s Correlation Row or Spearman rho’s and follow it to the variable column.
  • 3. Your effect size will be located in the cell where the above intersect.
  • 4. The effect size is calculated as:

Cohen's criteria for correlations (1998)

  • .1 = small (range from .1 to .29)
  • .3 = moderate (range from .3 to .49)
  • .5 = large (range from .5 to 1.0)
Correlations cannot be greater than 1.00, therefore a 0 should not be placed in front of the decimal.

Step seven:

  • Check the Level of Variance the Variables Have in Common
  • 1. Square the Pearson Correlation Value or Spearman rho value to find the variance
  • 2. In this example, the Verbal IQ and the Performance IQ share 44.09% of the variance in common (see correlation value of .664).
Verbal IQ (Wechsler Verbal Intelligence 3) Performance IQ (Wechsler Performance Intelligence 3)
Verbal IQ (Wechsler Verbal Intelligence 3)
Pearson Correlation 1 .664 **
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 1182 1180
Performance IQ (Wechsler Performance Intelligence 3)
Pearson Correlation .664 ** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 1180 1180
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Step eight:

  • Write the Numerical Sentence
  • 1. r ( n ) sp = sp correlation coefficient, sp p sp < sp .001 (or Bonferroni-adjusted alpha significance error rate).
  • 2. Using this example: r (1180) = .66, p <.001
[sp means to insert a space.] Remember that all mathematical symbols are placed in italics.

Step nine:

  • Narrative and Interpretation
  • 1. r value
  • 2. sample size or n
  • 3. p value
  • 4. r 2 value
  • 5. r (1180) = .66, p <.001, 44.09% of variance accounted for.
  • 6. Note that the r value itself is the effect size.

Writing up your statistics

So, how do you "write up" your Research Questions and your Results? Schuler W. Huck (2000) in his seminal book entitled, Reading Statistics and Research, points to the importance of your audience understanding and making sense of your research in written form. Huck further states:

This book is designed to help people decipher what researchers are trying to communicate in the written or oral summaries of their investigations. Here, the goal is simply to distill meaning from the words, symbols, tables, and figures included in the research report. To be competent in this arena, one must not only be able to decipher what's presented but also to "fill in the holes"; this is the case because researchers typically assume that those receiving the research report are familiar with unmentioned details of the research process and statistical treatment of data.

Writing up your correlations

Researchers and Professors John Slate and Ana Rojas-LeBouef understand this critical issue, so often neglected or not addressed by other authors and researchers. They point to the importance of doctoral students "writing up their statistics" in a way that others can understand your reporting and as importantly, interpret the meaning of your significant findings and implications for the preparation and practice of educational leadership. Slate and LeBouef provide you with a model for "writing up your Parametric and Non-Parametric Correlations statistics."

Click here to view: Writing Up Your Parametric Correlation Statistics

Click here to view: Writing Up Your Nonparamteric Correlation Statistics


  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.) . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erbaum
  • Hyperstats Online Statistics Textbook. (n.d.) Retrieved from (External Link)
  • Kurtosis. (n.d.). Definition. Retrieved from (External Link)&term_id=326
  • Kurtosis. (n.d.). Definition of normality . Retrieved from (External Link)
  • Onwuegbuzie, A. J.,&Daniel, L. G. (2002). Uses and misuses of the correlation coefficient. Research in the Schools, 9 (1) , 73-90.
  • Skewness. (n.d.) Retrieved from (External Link)&term_id=356
  • Skewness. (n.d.). Definition of normality . Retrieved from (External Link)
  • StatSoft, Inc. (2011). Electronic statistics textbook. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft. WEB: (External Link)

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Calculating basic statistical procedures in spss: a self-help and practical guide to preparing theses, dissertations, and manuscripts. OpenStax CNX. Apr 28, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11292/1.6
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