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While the US federal government has yet to pass legislation concerning embryonic stem cell research, several states have started passing their own laws. This modules is a brief overview of those laws.

State cloning laws

The information in this section is provided to illustrate the diversity of approaches various states are taking with regard to regulation of human cloning and embryonic stem cell research. The brief summary is based on a review of relevant literature and websites and should be considered preliminary.


While the United States has not passed any federal legislation concerning ESC research and human cloning, individual states have started passing their own laws. Sixteen states have legislation involving human cloning. Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, North Dakota, Rhode Island, South Dakota, and Virginia have passed legislation to prohibit reproductive cloning. Arkansas, Indiana, Michigan, North Dakota, and South Dakota also prohibit therapeutic cloning (cloning for research). Virginia fails to define "human being," and so it is unclear if therapeutic cloning is banned. Arizona, Indiana, and Michigan specifically prohibit the use of state funds for any human cloning, while Missouri prohibits public funding for reproductive cloning only. California, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Rhode Island specifically allow therapeutic cloning. California, Connecticut, Illinois, Maryland, and New Jersey have also gone so far as to fund such research using state money.

Twenty-six states have no legislation addressing either cloning or embryonic stem cell research and therefore have no policy on record. However, almost all of these states have pending legislation. Louisiana is the only state that bans research on IVF embryos, but this does not cover therapeutic or reproductive cloning as long as the blastocyst comes from another source such as being created from a sperm or unfertilized egg cell. Thus cloning is not explicitly restricted in Louisiana.

States with bans on research destroying embryos

Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Pennsylvania.

States with bans on reproductive and therapeutic cloning (scnt)

Arkansas, Indiana, Michigan, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Virginia (because‘human being’was left undefined in the legislation)

States with bans only reproductive cloning

California, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Rhode Island.

States with bans on public funds

For Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Nebraska (using money from the tobacco settlement fund only)

For Cloning: Arizona, Indiana, and Michigan

For Reproductive Cloning: Missouri

States funding embryonic stem cell research

California (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine), Connecticut (Connecticut Stem Cell Research Grants Program), Illinois (Illinois Regenerative Medicine Institute), Maryland (Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund), Massachusetts (Life Sciences Investment Fund), New Jersey (The Stem Cell Institute of New Jersey and the New Jersey Stem Cell Research Grants Program), Wisconsin (Stem Cell Products, Inc)

States with restrictions effecting embryonic stem cell research, but no legislation on cloning

Nebraska, New Hampshire, Minnesota, Ohio, Oklahoma, and Pennsylvania.

States with no legislation on either cloning or embryonic stem cell research

Alabama, Alaska, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming

References and further suggested readings

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
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it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Stem cell research: a science and policy overview. OpenStax CNX. Aug 03, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10445/1.1
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