# 12.2 Boundary conditions

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## Reflection of a transverse wave from a fixed end

We have seen that when a pulse meets a fixed endpoint, the pulse is reflected, but it is inverted. Since a transverse wave is a series of pulses, a transverse wave meeting a fixed endpoint is also reflected and the reflected wave is inverted. That means that the peaks and troughs are swapped around.

## Reflection of a transverse wave from a free end

If transverse waves are reflected from an end, which is free to move, the waves sent down the string are reflected but do not suffer a phase shift as shown in [link] .

## Standing waves

What happens when a reflected transverse wave meets an incident transverse wave? When two waves move in opposite directions, through each other, interference takes place. If the two waves have the same frequency and wavelength then standing waves are generated.

Standing waves are so-called because they appear to be standing still.

## Investigation : creating standing waves

Tie a rope to a fixed object such that the tied end does not move. Continuously move the free end up and down to generate firstly transverse waves and later standing waves.

We can now look closely how standing waves are formed. [link] shows a reflected wave meeting an incident wave.

When they touch, both waves have an amplitude of zero:

If we wait for a short time the ends of the two waves move past each other and the waves overlap. To find the resultant wave, we add the two together.

In this picture, we show the two waves as dotted lines and the sum of the two in the overlap regionis shown as a solid line:

The important thing to note in this case is that there are some points where the two waves always destructively interfere to zero.If we let the two waves move a little further we get the picture below:

Again we have to add the two waves together in the overlap region to see what the sum of the waves looks like.

In this case the two waves have moved half a cycle past each other but because they are completely out of phase they cancel out completely.

When the waves have moved past each other so that they are overlapping for a large region the situation looks like a waveoscillating in place. The following sequence of diagrams show what the resulting wave will look like. To make it clearer, the arrows at the top of the picture show peaks where maximum positiveconstructive interference is taking place. The arrows at the bottom of the picture show places where maximum negative interference istaking place.

As time goes by the peaks become smaller and the troughs become shallower but they do not move.

For an instant the entire region will look completely flat.

The various points continue their motion in the same manner.

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are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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