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We’re never satisfied with the performance level of our computing equipment and neither are the processor designers. Two-way superscalar processors were very successful around 1994. Many designs were able to execute 1.6–1.8 instructions per cycle on average, using all of the tricks described so far. As we became able to manufacture chips with an ever-increasing transistor count, it seemed that we would naturally progress to four-way and then eight-way superscalar processors. The fundamental problem we face when trying to keep four functional units busy is that it’s difficult to find contiguous sets of four (or eight) instructions that can be executed in parallel. It’s an easy cop-out to say, “the compiler will solve it all.”

The solution to these problems that will allow these processors to effectively use four functional units per cycle and hide memory latency is out-of-order execution and speculative execution . Out-of-order execution allows a later instruction to be processed before an earlier instruction is completed. The processor is “betting” that the instruction will execute, and the processor will have the precomputed “answer” the instruction needs. In some ways, portions of the RISC design philosophy are turned inside-out in these new processors.

Speculative computation

To understand the post-RISC architecture, it is important to separate the concept of computing a value for an instruction and actually executing the instruction. Let’s look at a simple example:


LD R10,R2(R0) Load into R10 from memory ... 30 Instructions of various kinds (not FDIV)FDIV R4,R5,R6 R4 = R5 / R6

Assume that (1) we are executing the load instruction, (2) R5 and R6 are already loaded from earlier instructions, (3) it takes 30 cycles to do a floating-point divide, and (4) there are no instructions that need the divide unit between the LD and the FDIV. Why not start the divide unit computing the FDIV right now, storing the result in some temporary scratch area? It has nothing better to do. When or if we arrive at the FDIV, we will know the result of the calculation, copy the scratch area into R4, and the FDIV will appear to execute in one cycle. Sound farfetched? Not for a post-RISC processor.

The post-RISC processor must be able to speculatively compute results before the processor knows whether or not an instruction will actually execute. It accomplishes this by allowing instructions to start that will never finish and allowing later instructions to start before earlier instructions finish.

To store these instructions that are in limbo between started and finished, the post-RISC processor needs some space on the processor. This space for instructions is called the instruction reorder buffer (IRB).

The post-risc pipeline

The post-RISC processor pipeline in [link] looks somewhat different from the RISC pipeline. The first two stages are still instruction fetch and decode. Decode includes branch prediction using a table that indicates the probable behavior of a branch. Once instructions are decoded and branches are predicted, the instructions are placed into the IRB to be computed as soon as possible.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, High performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11136/1.5
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