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This is the final installment of my three part tutorial on the CNXML language. It is currently valid for the most recent release of the language, CNXML 0.6. The keywords contain a list of the tags described in this tutorial. Along with the example code in this module there is also an example module that has been growing throughout the tutorial.


The code tag is used to insert example computer output/input as either inline text within a paragraph or as ablock of text. To see which tags it may contain or be inside, consult the CNXML Spec . The code tag has a display attribute with two possible values.

  • inline (default) - used to specify code that is inline.
  • block - used to specify code that should be in a separate block of text.

<para id='copy'>In a unix terminal the command to copy a file is<code display='inline'>cp original copy</code>.</para>

In a unix terminal the command to copy a file is cp original copy


The exercise tag provides a tag for authors to add practice problems into their documents. The exercise tag has a required id attribute and has two child tags, problem and solution .

To create more complex answers, such as multiple-choice, multiple-response, ordered-response, and text-responsequestions, QML (Questions Markup Language) may used in place of the problem and solution tags. For more information,please see the information about QML .

<exercise id='grilltest'><problem><para id='grilltestp1'>For food safety, a steak should be cooked to a minimum temperature of what?</para></problem><solution><para id='sol1p1'>160&deg; F or until the juices run clear and the meat is no longer pink.</para></solution></exercise>

For food safety, a steak should be cooked to a minimum temperature of what?

160° F or until the juices run clear and the meat is no longer pink

Cals table

CNXML uses the industry standard CALS Table Model for including tables into CNXML documents. Provided below is a brief description of the CALS tags,their attributes, and children (along with a helpful example ). For a more complete description of the CALS Table consult the CALS Table Spec .


The table tag marks the beginning of a table. It has an optional first child of title and must contain one or more tgroup tags. The table tag also has many attributes, to find out more information consult the CALS Table Spec .


The tgroup tag marks the beginning of a new portion of a table . It has a required attribute cols which is the number of columns in the tgroup . Its children tags are zero, one, or more colspec or spanspec , zero or one thead or tfoot , and one tbody tag.


The colspec tag is an empty tag that specificies the column of a table or entrytbl . The names and numbers specified as attributes are used for referencing by othertags.


The spanspec tag is an empty tag that identifies a horizontal span of columns and associatedattributes that can subsequently be referenced by its spanname for repeated use in entry or entrytbl in different rows .


The thead tag identifies the heading row of a tgroup or entrytbl . The thead tag can have zero, one, or more colspec tags and one or more row .


The tfoot tag identifies the rows of footer information that are displayed after the tbody . The tfoot tag can have zero, one, or more colspec tags and one or more row .


The tbody tag identifies the body of a tgroup or entrytbl . The tbody tag must have one or more row tags.


The row tag identifies the row of information in a thead , tbody , or tfoot . The row tag must have one or more entry or entrytbl .


The entrytbl tag takes the place of an entry , but fits into a single row of tbody in a tgroup . The content model is the same as that of a tgroup except that tfoot is ommitted and entrytbl is self-excluding. Its children tags are zero, one, or more colspec or spanspec , zero or one thead or tfoot , and one tbody tag.


The entry tag identifies an entry in a row . The entry tag contains ASCII text and zero, one, or many cite , term , cnxn , link , code , emphasis , or media .

Using cals tables

It might sound a little confusing but I think that the best way to understand a table is to look at [link] . For more information, consult the CALS Table Spec or the CNXML Spec .

<table id='grilltemp' frame='all'><title>Steak Cooking Temperatures</title><tgroup cols='2' colsep='1' rowsep='1'><thead><row><entry>Temperature (&deg;F)</entry><entry>Description</entry></row></thead><tbody><row><entry align='center'>140</entry><entry align='center'>Rare</entry></row><row><entry align='center'>150</entry><entry align='center'>Medium Rare</entry></row><row><entry align='center'>160</entry><entry align='center'>Medium</entry></row><row><entry align='center'>165</entry><entry align='center'>Medium Well</entry></row><row><entry align='center'>170</entry><entry align='center'>Well</entry></row></tbody></tgroup></table>
Steak cooking temperatures
Temperature (°F) Description
140 Rare
150 Medium Rare
160 Medium
165 Medium Well
170 Well


This concludes the CNXML tutorial.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Cnxml tutorial. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10121/1.10
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