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Like the rest of Central Europe this area was subject to Charlemagne's religious wars early in the century. With fire and sword he preached the Gospel to Saxons, Bohemians and down into Hungary. Later in 870, Sviatopluk, a Moravian prince, united Moravia, Bohemia and Slovakia into the Kingdom of Moravia and held against further German aggression. It was during his reign that Cyril and Methodius brought Christianity of the Byzantine variety to the region. In the last years of the century, however, the German clergy redoubled its efforts and won back Bohemia and Moravia for the Latin Church. (Ref. 119 ) The Czechs became dominant over all the Bohemian tribes, while Slovakia came under Magyar rule. (Ref. 206 , 222 )


In this 9th century part of what is now Switzerland was included in Swabia and the rest was part of Transjurane Burgundy. (Ref. 137 )

Western europe


Charlemagne conquered Catalonia in northeastern Spain but otherwise this country remained politically as in the 8th century, about half or less Christian and the remainder Moorish Moslem. The Christian princes lived in the high, barren northern mountains and the Basques remained in the central north by themselves, while the plains of Granada and Andalusia were the home of the Moslems and the Jews. Agricultural poverty and political disunity kept Christian Spain far behind its Moslem rival in the south and its Frank rival in the north.

The Spanish Moslem rulers continued to be the last remnants of the Omayyad house. Hakam I added Mamluk slaves to the royal guard and continued to cruelly suppress all independent intellectual activity. His successor, Abd-er-Rahman II, was more peaceful to his own people and although his armies waged continuous warfare against the Christians, Cordoba attained its greatest splendor. The second university in Europe (Solerno was the first) was formed around the library of Khalif al-Hakim of Cordoba. It is said that he collected 400,000 volumes (equal to about 20,000 modern books) and read them all, making comments on the fly leaves. The mainstream of Greco-Roman learning thus came to Europe through Spain, with commentaries by both Moslem and Jewish scholars. Cordoba had paved streets, perhaps 500,000 inhabitants and 300 mosques. By about A.D. 900

This date is from The Times Atlas of World History, (Ref. 8 ) but Thomas (Ref. 213 ) gives a later date at A.D. 1150
paper mills had appeared in Spain. In the last half of the century, however, prosperity lessened and there was much turmoil and many local rebellions. (Ref. 49 , 213 , 8 , 196 )

NOTE: Map of The Iberian Peninsula


As is apparent in the small map above, Portugal was not yet a separate country but part of the province of Leon of Spain, ruled in greatest part by Moors.


Please see the section on GERMANY, page 484, for details of the collapse of Charlemagne's Empire. During the costly civil wars which followed that collapse of the Frank kingdom, the expanding tribes of Scandinavia invaded France in a new "barbarian" wave. All the cities of northern France were sacked again and again. Tours was pillaged five times in the last half of the century and Paris was hit twice and then burned on a third attack. In 859 a Norse fleet entered the Mediterranean and raided towns from the south along the Rhone. The Saracens had already taken Corsica and held most of the French Mediterranean coast through the next century. The result of all these raids and particularly those of the Vikings was a fragmentation of public authority and a great upsurge of feudalism as a means of protection. The peasant as a freeman virtually disappeared and society was polarized between nobles and serfs. In addition, the descendants of the first generations of French agents of the Carolingians were not as loyal as their fathers and tended to identify with the particular interests of their own localities at the expense of the Frankish kingdom. As noted above, however, Charlemagne's Empire did not completely disintegrate until about 887 or 888 when it gave way to a large kingdom of "France" and a smaller kingdom of Province in the south, while the Bretons still held their northwest peninsula. (Ref. 8 , 137 ) Additional Notes

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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