<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

NOTE: Insert Map 48. The Swiss Confederation 1526

Upon attaining an essentially independent status in 1533, Geneva had allied itself with the Cantons of Fribourg and Bern and had accepted the Reformation preached by Guillaume Farel. Calvin came there to preach in the middle of the century, after Zwingli's death, and wrote the book The Principles of the Christian Religion, which was modeled after Luther and followed the ideas of Paul and St. Augustine. He put these thoughts into an eccliastical doctrine and established the Reformed and Presbyterian Churches, which won the allegiance of hundreds of millions of men in Switzerland, France, Scotland, England and North America. His theology was dismal - this life is a vale of misery and tears and it would be better to die immediately at birth. He agreed with Zwingli on the Mass; he set rigid moral laws; and made the church supreme again over the state. He was hated by Luther over the single point of- doctrine about the interpretation of the Mass. In later years, Calvin became more and more intolerant and had Michael Servitus burned at the stake for being too liberal and humanistic. (Ref. 51 )

Western europe

McNeill (Ref. 139 ) says that Europeans of the Atlantic seaboard developed command of all oceans of the world within a half century because of three factors: (1) A deep-rooted pugnacity and recklessness. (2) Complex military technology, particularly naval. (3) A population inured to a variety of diseases long endemic in the old world. From 1560 or 1580 population in the western world, especially in France, Spain and Italy, again became too dense and eventually poverty ensued. (Ref. 260 ) Western Europe, in general, tended to be somewhat antagonistic to the Genoese, who were the chief "capitalists" with the most money, ready "to buy everything up". (Ref. 292 ) This may be analogous to more recent situations there regarding Americans. (Ref. 292 )


In a little more than a half century Spanish institutions and civilization were impressed upon an area larger than the whole of Europe. The Spanish army was the most successful of Europe, with even nobles in its ranks, carrying handguns. Their real pride, however, was the cavalry and after 1525 they dominated Europe until the middle of the next century. Long before that, Spain was spending 70% of its revenue on weapons. For the infantry one man in twelve was conscripted, but he too became a professional. (Ref. 213 )

Isabelle, the great queen, died in 1504 and Ferdinand, whose natural Machevellian tendencies had been tempered by Isabelle, died in 1516. In that short time, however, he was totally involved in European politics, goading Henry VIII into war with France and even talking Henry into sending 7,000 men to San Sebastian in 1512 to drive the French from Navarre and conquer Guienne. The attack was premature and a dismal failure. Later, in 1518, the French advanced again, capturing the Spanish garrison at Pamplona, a battle in which the Spanish officer Ignatius de Loyola received a severe leg wound. During his convalescence he reformed his life and founded the Society of Jesus, as we have previously noted. (Ref. 291 ) Ferdinand's grandson, Charles of Ghent, became Carlos (Charles) I of Spain and Sicily and because the young man's other grandfather had been Maximilian of Austria, he also became king of the Netherlands. As noted above he later became Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V and thus ruled Germany and Austria also. At first Charles could speak no Spanish and he tried to bring an entire Flemish court with him to Spain. Almost immediately after arrival he had to leave to go to Germany and he left Cardinal Adrian of Utrecht to act as regent. In his absence the nobles rose up against him in the Revolt of the Communeros, but this was soon transformed into a class war of commoners against nobles, so that the latter eventually had to support the king to save themselves.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?