<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

NOTE: Insert Map 48. The Swiss Confederation 1526

Upon attaining an essentially independent status in 1533, Geneva had allied itself with the Cantons of Fribourg and Bern and had accepted the Reformation preached by Guillaume Farel. Calvin came there to preach in the middle of the century, after Zwingli's death, and wrote the book The Principles of the Christian Religion, which was modeled after Luther and followed the ideas of Paul and St. Augustine. He put these thoughts into an eccliastical doctrine and established the Reformed and Presbyterian Churches, which won the allegiance of hundreds of millions of men in Switzerland, France, Scotland, England and North America. His theology was dismal - this life is a vale of misery and tears and it would be better to die immediately at birth. He agreed with Zwingli on the Mass; he set rigid moral laws; and made the church supreme again over the state. He was hated by Luther over the single point of- doctrine about the interpretation of the Mass. In later years, Calvin became more and more intolerant and had Michael Servitus burned at the stake for being too liberal and humanistic. (Ref. 51 )

Western europe

McNeill (Ref. 139 ) says that Europeans of the Atlantic seaboard developed command of all oceans of the world within a half century because of three factors: (1) A deep-rooted pugnacity and recklessness. (2) Complex military technology, particularly naval. (3) A population inured to a variety of diseases long endemic in the old world. From 1560 or 1580 population in the western world, especially in France, Spain and Italy, again became too dense and eventually poverty ensued. (Ref. 260 ) Western Europe, in general, tended to be somewhat antagonistic to the Genoese, who were the chief "capitalists" with the most money, ready "to buy everything up". (Ref. 292 ) This may be analogous to more recent situations there regarding Americans. (Ref. 292 )

Spain

In a little more than a half century Spanish institutions and civilization were impressed upon an area larger than the whole of Europe. The Spanish army was the most successful of Europe, with even nobles in its ranks, carrying handguns. Their real pride, however, was the cavalry and after 1525 they dominated Europe until the middle of the next century. Long before that, Spain was spending 70% of its revenue on weapons. For the infantry one man in twelve was conscripted, but he too became a professional. (Ref. 213 )

Isabelle, the great queen, died in 1504 and Ferdinand, whose natural Machevellian tendencies had been tempered by Isabelle, died in 1516. In that short time, however, he was totally involved in European politics, goading Henry VIII into war with France and even talking Henry into sending 7,000 men to San Sebastian in 1512 to drive the French from Navarre and conquer Guienne. The attack was premature and a dismal failure. Later, in 1518, the French advanced again, capturing the Spanish garrison at Pamplona, a battle in which the Spanish officer Ignatius de Loyola received a severe leg wound. During his convalescence he reformed his life and founded the Society of Jesus, as we have previously noted. (Ref. 291 ) Ferdinand's grandson, Charles of Ghent, became Carlos (Charles) I of Spain and Sicily and because the young man's other grandfather had been Maximilian of Austria, he also became king of the Netherlands. As noted above he later became Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V and thus ruled Germany and Austria also. At first Charles could speak no Spanish and he tried to bring an entire Flemish court with him to Spain. Almost immediately after arrival he had to leave to go to Germany and he left Cardinal Adrian of Utrecht to act as regent. In his absence the nobles rose up against him in the Revolt of the Communeros, but this was soon transformed into a class war of commoners against nobles, so that the latter eventually had to support the king to save themselves.

Questions & Answers

price elasticity of demand is the degree of responsiveness of a quantity demanded to the change in price of the commodity in question.
Gladys Reply
what is the importance of learning economics?
Thelma Reply
it helps to make the correct choice
Gladys
it helps firm to produce products that will bring more profit
Gladys
the difference between needs and wants
londiwe Reply
needs are things that we basically can't live without wants are just luxury things
Thelma
needs are things without them we can't live but want are things without we can live
KP
what is education
KP
it's a process in which we give or receiving methodical instructions
Thelma
what is mixed economy
Amex
what is a deadweight loss? how monopoly creates a deadweight loss?
Ashraf Reply
who are u?
Lamine
haha
Cleaford
scarm
nura
what it this
Cleaford
hi y'all
Dope
how does group chat help y'all 🤔
Dope
hi y'all
Dope
how does group chat help y'all 🤔
Dope
how does group chat help y'all 🤔
Dope
to learn from one another
Lamine
oh okay
Dope
😟
Creative
Yes
Lamine
what is type of economic
taiwo Reply
how to understand basics of economics
Aarif Reply
what is demand schedle
Princess Reply
When you make a Scedule of the demand you made
Rodeen
this is helpful for rbi grade b
Prema Reply
What is macroeconomics
Kauna Reply
It's one of the two branches of Economics that deal with the aggregate economy.
Mayen
it's about inflation, occupation, gdp and so on
alberto
What is differences between Microeconomics and Macroeconomic?
Bethrand
microeconomics focuses on the action of individual agents in the economy such as businesses, workers and household. while macroeconomics looks at the economy as a whole. it focuses on broad issues in the economy such as government deficit, economy growth, levels of exports and imports, and
Thelma
inflationary increase in prices
Thelma
a price floor of 24 imposed
Annie Reply
monopolistic competition
bintu Reply
yap
nura
any one there to answer my question
Richard Reply
Fixed Costs per week Variable Costs per bear Rent & Rates of Factory Hire & machines Heating & Lighting Repayment of Bank Loan K100.00 K45.00 K5.00 K50.00 Materials Foam Wages K6.00 K1.00 K1.00 Total K200.00 K8.00
Richard
one of the scarce resources that constrain our behaviour is time. each of us has only 24 hours in a day. how do you go about allocating your time in a given day among completing alternatives? once you choose a most important use of time. why do you not spend all your time to it. use the notion of op
naknak Reply
mohsina mala..Bangla app hobe na
Dipam Reply
mani Baba. First learn the spelling of Economics
Dipam Reply
Economics- The study of how people use their limited resources to tey and satisfy unlimited wants.
Kelly
hmmm
Mani
etar bangla apps hobe na?
Mohsina
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask