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(Ref. 8 , 119 )


The Swiss were the best soldiers in Europe and were frequently hired out as mercenaries and they repulsed all attempts of the Austrian dukes to enforce feudal rights. In 1315, after defeating the Habsburg dukes by rolling rocks down the hills on to the knights, at the battle of Morgarten, three cantons made the further step of forming the Swiss Confederacy, on their way to establishing the most stable and sensible democracy in history. Soon the original three cantons had been joined by five others. The Confederacy, however, remained a part of the Holy Roman Empire, although the southern communes emancipated themselves from the domination of the House of Habsurg by defeating Leopold II of Swabia, in 1388. Blamed for spreading the Black Death, Jews were persecuted at Lake Geneva and Basel. (Ref. 222 )

Western europe

Famines, the Black Death (1346-53) and social and economic strife reordered the manorial system throughout western Europe, with the previous servile tenant becoming either a free-holder or wage worker. Laborers organized and revolts erupted. (Ref. 8 ) After 1350, for a hundred years there was a sharp drop in population and concomitantly a rise in the standard of living for the survivors of the epidemics and famines, as they inherited property and had more land for use and could concentrate on only the good, productive land. (Ref. 260 )


Racially and geographically Spain was lacking in unity. Its population was a mixture of many stocks - Iberian, Celtic, Carthaginian and Roman, Teutonic and Arabic, Moorish and Jewish - and its mountains had prevented it from acquiring homogeneity.

In the Christian areas they had only religion in common. The one saving grace of 14th century Spain was wool, the chief source of royal revenue. By 1400 this country was exporting wool all over Europe and especially to Tuscany, while English exports there had dropped. (Ref. 213 , 222 )

Bands of mercenaries employed by every side took place in dynastic wars over most of the country. Although the successors of Alfonso X were not very capable, Alfonso XI (1340) did defeat an attack of Spanish and Moroccon Moslems and ended the African menace. This battle of Rio Salado (1340) saw perhaps the first use of cannon in Europe. (Ref. 281 ) Throughout the Hundred Years War, Castile supported France but tried to avoid actual hostility with England. Pedro the Cruel came to power in mid-century and, helped by the Franciscan monks, promoted a terrible persecution of Jews. Some of the latter converted to Christianity while others fled or were killed. Otherwise Pedro's reign was little more than a dynastic struggle with his half-brother, Enrigue (Henry) Trastamara.

The French, outraged by Pedro's treatment of his French wife, sent Du Guesclin to Spain to support Enrigue, while the English supported Pedro until they, too, became estranged by the kings' viscous character. Ultimately Enrigue defeated and killed Pedro and subsequently reigned as Enrigue II Trastamara. In Spanish history this was the "Trastamara usurpation" of 1369. Peace was made with both Aragon and Portugal by 1374. (Ref. 222 ) Enrigue's son, John I, and grandson, Enrigue III followed him on the throne before the end of the century.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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