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By the end of this century, although written Latin had not changed its appearance, spoken Latin had developed a new sound pattern. Stressed vowels were drawled; unstressed vowels were dulled, weakened and often dropped. As the great civilization which had been unified by the Latin language collapsed, what Freeman Dyson (Ref. 56 ) calls a "clade" of new Latin-derived languages - French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian and a few lesser ones, grew and developed in relatively rapid fashion. At most, 20 generations separate unified Roman Europe from the Europe of well-established local languages. (Ref. 168 , 56 )

Central europe

This century saw the beginning of "Die Volkerwanderungen", meaning "peoples' migrations". The Alemans were on the upper Rhine while the Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians were along the North Sea. The Vandals, related to the Goths, were on the upper reaches of the Oder River moving (or perhaps being pushed by Goths) from the area of modern Prussia and possibly Denmark, south to the Danube in the area of Pannonia, a portion of modern Hungary. The Lombards lived between the Oder and Vistula in modern Poland and also on the lower Elbe in Germany. The Burgundians drifted westward to the Main River and the Thuringians held their ancient, central position in Bavaria and northward. All these tribes for the most part were antagonistic to each other.

In the early 370s Ostrogoths, led by Athanaric, migrated from the Balkans into Pannonia and after the Fritigen led Ostrogoths had their great victory at Adrianople, they also plundered Pannonia. The Huns were following closely and they set up camps in Pannonia also by 378, enslaving the Gepids (related to the Goths) in the process. The Huns with their flocks now occupied pasture land extending from the Caspian Sea to Hungary. In 383 Juthungi Germans invaded Austria, perhaps with permission of Maximus, but in 384 Hunnic horsemen rode through them on their way to Gaul. General Bauto, of the Roman forces, persuaded the Huns to attack the Germans and they obligingly crushed them in one great sweep before continuing on toward Gaul. Bauto then apparently got nervous about their advance and bought off the Huns with gold and they retreated to their base in Hungary. Thereafter individual Hun tribes pillaged Hungary at will. By 396 a group of Visigoths, headed by Alaric, had settled in Illyrium, the western part of present day Yugoslavia. (Ref. 139 , 127 , 136 ) In Bohemia the Germanic tribes were slowly being pushed west throughout all these early Christian centuries by the Slavs, moving in from Russia. Switzerland remained quiet under the Roman yoke.

Western europe

Spain and portugal

The Iberian Peninsula remained under Roman rule, but somewhat restlessly and occasionally the emperor had to send out expeditionary forces to put down uprisings of rebellious peasants. The Catholic church was recognized to be on equal footing with other religions, but there were many local heresies. By the end of the century there were about 9,000,000 people in this area. (Ref. 127 , 196 )

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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