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Europe

Back to Europe: A.D. 101 to 200

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands |greece | upper balkans

This entire area was an integral part of the Roman Empire and was administered in three parts: The Dacian diocese, comprised of eastern Yugoslavia, western Bulgaria, Moesia Superior, Dacia and some smaller areas; the Macedonian diocese consisting chiefly of Greece; and the Thracian diocese, which was made up of eastern Bulgaria and the European part of Turkey, which in turn, included Lower Moesia, Scythia, Thrace, etc. Of these only Dacia used the Latin language, while the others all spoke Greek. The Goths arrived in the Black Sea area by A.D. 214 and soon occupied all the region west of this sea, splitting into two divisions, to be known as Ostrogoths (East Goths) and Visigoths (West Goths). They battled the Romans in this area throughout the century and the Roman Emperor Decius was slain by them in Dacia as the Romans withdrew in A.D. 275 to safety south of the Danube. Many native Dacians took to the hills with their Latin language, to reappear centuries later as ancestors of the modern Romanians. Gallus, a former legate of Moesia (chiefly the area of Bulgaria), became emperor of Rome in 251. In 268 Claudius II (Gothicus) became the first of a series of emperors from Illyria. They were a capable group and prepared the way for Diocletian. (Ref. 127 , 206 , 48 )

Italy

Although already diminished by some severe pestilence, the population of Rome at the beginning of this 3rd century was at least one million. An epidemic hit again between 251 and 266, with 5,000 dying each day at its peak in Rome and with the rural populations also heavily affected. The disease may have been either measles and/or smallpox. Civil disorders and barbarian invasions simply added to the problem. Vacancies within the legions on the Roman frontiers, caused by deaths from disease and mutinies, resulted in invitations to the barbarians to both enter the legions and settle the lands. Rapid die-off around the entire Mediterranean hampered commerce and diminished the flow of cash to the imperial treasury and this resulted in no pay for the soldiers, thus further mutinies, military uprisings and civil wars in outlying areas. (Ref. 140 ) Armies in different provinces tried to set up their own commanders as emperors (the "Thirty Tyrants"), but this situation was eliminated between 268 and 284. Of course almost constant war with the powerful Persians in the east did not help and a succession of emperors of anarchy came and went, usually by murders. The resources of the rich were consumed by war and by the government. The menial work of Rome was performed by about 400,000 slaves, with even middle class citizens owning about 8 and the rich from 500 to 1,000. (Ref. 222 )

The eastern part of the empire was momentarily saved in name, if not in truth, by Odenathus and Zenobia, as we have reported in the section on THE NEAR EAST. Gaul had revolted and assumed its own autonomy under first Postumus and then Tetricus. Aurel- ian, emperor from 270 to 275, however, temporarily restored Gaul, Spain and Britain to the fold and built the existing walls of Rome as a protection against future incursions by barbarians. To keep the expanding poor of Rome reasonably happy, Aurelian added free pork-fat and wine to the "Annona", as well as giving bread instead of just grain. In order to pay troops, the government gradually debased the silver currency and along with devaluation this culminated in rapid inflation. Increasingly slaves were used in all capacities, even in positions of dependent management of farms, shops, ships and banks. (Ref. 8 )

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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