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Europe

Back to Europe: A.D. 1101 to 1200

Although Europe was in great part burning with the Crusade zeal, still the trade and economy was such that one might say that western capitalism was established in this century. The scale of crossbow manufacture, particularly in Barcelona and Genoa, had reached the stage where the supply allowed not only use in the crows nests of fighting ships but also in land battles as well. This further signalled the downfall of horse warfare as suggested by the success of the Catalan Company whose exploits will be told under TURKEY and SOUTHERN EUROPE, in the next chapter. (Ref. 279 ) Additional Notes

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

In 1204 at the close of the 4th Crusade, the Latin Empire of Constantinople controlled the Cyclades under the title of Duchy of the Archipelago, with ruling Italian and Venetian nobles. At the same time, Rhodes was freed from Byzantine control and some areas came under rule of local lords, while others were under Genoa or Nicaea.

By 1282, however, the Seljuq Turks took over the entire island of Rhodes while Venice continued to dominate Crete after the 4th Crusade. When the Hospitallers arrived on Cyprus in 1291, they established sugar cane, which they had brought from Syria. (Ref. 38 , 86 )

After Constantinople was sacked by the 4th Crusaders, the Byzantine areas, including Greece, were divided into feudal dominions, each ruled by a Latin noble. Most of these on the mainland were French and French became the official language there for a period of 57 years, particularly in the feudal state ruled by the Villeharddouin princes. An unique mixture of French and Hellenistic culture flourished in Morea in the Peloponnese. In 1261 the Byzantine Empire was restored under the Palaeologus Dynasty, but the territory was much reduced and there was little attached glory. Greek art and literature did experience some revival and there were at least two peripheral Greek dynasties - the Greek Empire in Exile at Nicaea in Asia Minor and the Despotate of Epirus on the west shore of the Greek peninsula. The latter had fallen to the Bulgars in a war in 1230 but the Greek-Nicaean empire armies triumphantly re-entered the area in July of 1261.

Upper balkans

The Second Bulgarian Empire emerged after the Crusader sacking of Constantinople, with the Asen Dynasty oscillating in allegiance between the West and the East. Under her greatest king, John Asen II, Bulgaria ruled also Thrace, Macedonia, and for awhile after 1230, also Greek Epirus and Albania. This king was much beloved, even by the Greek population. Finally he broke with Rome and the Bulgarian Church became independent. While Bulgarian territory was at its maximum a Mongol invasion greatly disordered and weakened the state and the leadership of the Balkans moved farther west to the Serbs. Ever since that time, even up until the 20th century, Bulgaria has been striving to regain that once extensive empire which included parts of Yugoslavia, Turkey (old Thrace), Greece (old Macedonia) and Albania. As the Mongols, under Kadan, headed back toward Mongolia in 1241, the Bulgarian King Koloman I paid tribute and accepted Batu as his overlord. (Ref. 72 , 27 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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