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Europe

Back to Europe: A.D. 1101 to 1200

Although Europe was in great part burning with the Crusade zeal, still the trade and economy was such that one might say that western capitalism was established in this century. The scale of crossbow manufacture, particularly in Barcelona and Genoa, had reached the stage where the supply allowed not only use in the crows nests of fighting ships but also in land battles as well. This further signalled the downfall of horse warfare as suggested by the success of the Catalan Company whose exploits will be told under TURKEY and SOUTHERN EUROPE, in the next chapter. (Ref. 279 ) Additional Notes

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

In 1204 at the close of the 4th Crusade, the Latin Empire of Constantinople controlled the Cyclades under the title of Duchy of the Archipelago, with ruling Italian and Venetian nobles. At the same time, Rhodes was freed from Byzantine control and some areas came under rule of local lords, while others were under Genoa or Nicaea.

By 1282, however, the Seljuq Turks took over the entire island of Rhodes while Venice continued to dominate Crete after the 4th Crusade. When the Hospitallers arrived on Cyprus in 1291, they established sugar cane, which they had brought from Syria. (Ref. 38 , 86 )

After Constantinople was sacked by the 4th Crusaders, the Byzantine areas, including Greece, were divided into feudal dominions, each ruled by a Latin noble. Most of these on the mainland were French and French became the official language there for a period of 57 years, particularly in the feudal state ruled by the Villeharddouin princes. An unique mixture of French and Hellenistic culture flourished in Morea in the Peloponnese. In 1261 the Byzantine Empire was restored under the Palaeologus Dynasty, but the territory was much reduced and there was little attached glory. Greek art and literature did experience some revival and there were at least two peripheral Greek dynasties - the Greek Empire in Exile at Nicaea in Asia Minor and the Despotate of Epirus on the west shore of the Greek peninsula. The latter had fallen to the Bulgars in a war in 1230 but the Greek-Nicaean empire armies triumphantly re-entered the area in July of 1261.

Upper balkans

The Second Bulgarian Empire emerged after the Crusader sacking of Constantinople, with the Asen Dynasty oscillating in allegiance between the West and the East. Under her greatest king, John Asen II, Bulgaria ruled also Thrace, Macedonia, and for awhile after 1230, also Greek Epirus and Albania. This king was much beloved, even by the Greek population. Finally he broke with Rome and the Bulgarian Church became independent. While Bulgarian territory was at its maximum a Mongol invasion greatly disordered and weakened the state and the leadership of the Balkans moved farther west to the Serbs. Ever since that time, even up until the 20th century, Bulgaria has been striving to regain that once extensive empire which included parts of Yugoslavia, Turkey (old Thrace), Greece (old Macedonia) and Albania. As the Mongols, under Kadan, headed back toward Mongolia in 1241, the Bulgarian King Koloman I paid tribute and accepted Batu as his overlord. (Ref. 72 , 27 )

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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