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Back to Europe: 0 to A.D. 100

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

Part of the Roman Empire.


The home place of the Hellenic world enjoyed an "Indian summer" which was mistaken for a "Golden Age". A thousand city-states lived peacefully together but an impalpable censorship from the Roman overseers was already slowly eliminating intellectual and artistic vitality. At the end of the century the Germanic Costobii raided down through Greece to within 14 miles of Athens. (Ref. 48 )

Upper balkans

Almost all of the present day Balkans belonged to the Roman Empire, including Dacia or Romania, Moesia or Bulgaria,Thracia and Dalmatia. The very northern portions of Romania and Bulgaria may have been outside the Roman jurisdiction, in the large area known then as Sarmatia and extending over into Russia on the north shore of the Black Sea. In the upper Balkan area, however, only Romania can be said to have been truly Latinized.


The first half of the century, under Emperors Trajan and Hadrian and their immediate successors, was one of the great periods of the empire, with general prosperity and with limited exceptions, such as the Romano-Jewish Wars and Armenian squabbles, a period of peace. The Mediterranean world had a fullness of life not seen before or since. The Greek spirit ruled the mind and the East, while the Roman spirit ruled the state and the West. Under Trajan the empire reached its greatest geographical extent, as indicated on the map and in the summary of the empire at A.D. 117 to follow.

  • AFRICA. All of Egypt and the north African coast, including Mauretania, Syrtica and Marmarica.
  • THE NEAR EAST. A portion of Arabia, all of the eastern Mediterranean coast, all of Syria, Iraq, Media in Persia, Asia Minor, including Bithynia, Pontus and Cappadocia, Cilicia, Lycaonia, Gallatia and Armenia.
    • SOUTHERN EUROPE. Greece and most of the Balkan area, including Dacia (Romania), Moesia (Bulgaria), Thracia and Dalmatia (southern Bulgaria, European Turkey, Yugoslavia and Croatia), and all of Italy and Sicily.
    • B. CENTRAL EUROPE. The Austrian-Hungary area, known then as Pannonia, Noricum and Baetia, and those parts of present day Germany which lie west of the Rhine and south of the Danube, including Bavaria, Switzerland and the parts of Germany about the Black Forest.
    • WESTERN EUROPE. Hispania (Spain and Portugal), Brittanica (England and Wales), Gallia and Belgica, etc.

The empire was surrounded by Germania, Sarmatia, Parthia and the remainder of Arabia.

A few words about the emperors themselves seems indicated. Trajan was the first emperor to have been born outside Italy, coming from a Roman colonial family living in Spain. He lived simply and was a tireless administrator who completed extensive public works including roads, buildings, bridges and aqueducts. He awarded 5,000 scholarships to needy students and he financed secondary schools and pensions for teachers. Romania was conquered because it was on the road to Byzantium at the Bosporus. When his armies reached the Indian Ocean and Trajan went home, revolts spread and his nephew, Hadrian, in command in Syria, withdrew to the Euphrates. Tacitus did his historical writing during this reign.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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