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Europe

Back to Europe 700 to 601 B.C.

Southern europe

In this and the adjacent centuries there was extensive admixture not only of cultures and materials but of peoples, themselves, throughout all areas of southern Europe and even northern Africa and the eastern Mediterranean. There were migrations of peoples from Greece to the Aegean islands and Asia Minor and to Italy and southern France, while Phoenicians and Carthaginians moved to Italy, Sicily and Sardinia and the various tribes in both peninsulas intermingled, fought, traded, usurped territory and consolidated villages. Peoples of varying races and languages seemed to live side by side at times, only to fight at other times. Just as diverse languages seem to be no impediment to students, business men, teachers and travelers in Europe today, so it seems to have been true throughout the centuries. Thus eastern and Greek influences became prominent in Italy and the western Mediterranean. (Ref. 75 )

Eastern mediterranean islands

There was no great political change in this century from the last except that Persia took over Rhodes and its colonies. (Ref. 38 )

Greece

The node of Greek trading was at the Peloponnesian isthmus and Greece's first major city, Corinth, had developed there. About 600 B.C. a paved way allowed ships to be hauled across the isthmus. What Corinth owed to this key position geographically, Athens owed to the discovery of silver at nearby Laurion. It was with this that Athens subsequently financed its navy using a slave work-force running to five figures. (Ref. 249 ) The Ionians attained great naval strength, but Samos, under Polycrates, became a great seapower also, using long-boats with as many as fifty oars. Greece continued to be polyglot with even the Ionians having four different dialects. (Ref. 122 , 136 , 216 , 58 )

As the city-states increased in population subsistence became a problem in view of the poor soil, and various cities solved the potential crisis in various ways. While Corinth and Chalcis established overseas colonies, Sparta attacked and conquered nearby Greek neighbors and thus developed a military state. Athens, on the other hand, developed a specialized agricultural export trade and started manufacturing based on the export of wine and oil from their grapes and olives, in exchange for grain. Miletus and Eretria participated also in this trade. In Attica the tyrant

"A tyrant was a man who gained power through coup d'etat and ruled extra-legally." (Ref. 139 ) page 202
Peisistratus started a policy of granting state loans to farmers who planted their land with grapes or olives. Solon forbade the export of any agricultural product except olive oil and this was the final touch as far as Greek soil was concerned, because the deep tap root of the olive tree soaked up the moisture far down in the limestone and did nothing to feed top soil. Even though Athens grew rich on the silver and olive oil, basic food supplies still had to be imported, necessitating continued trade. The unique artistic talents of the Athenians helped as they exported their famous "black-figure" vases with the black shapes standing out from an orange-red base
In 1970 a list showed that 1,560 of these vases had been found in Etruria, Italy, and many more have been found since then. (Ref. 75 )
. Meat was a rarity except at times of religious sacrifice. There were no palms in Greece, but figs were used, particularly dried, in winter.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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