<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >


Back to Europe 1500 to 1000 B.C.

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

The great island empires of previous centuries no longer existed, and all of these areas were integral parts of either Greece or Asian states. For example, the southern half of Cyprus was now under Phoenician influence, while the northern half, along with

Rhodes and Crete were under Greek control. At various periods around 800 B.C. Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians conquered Cyprus, but let native kings rule. Dorian Greeks continued to control Crete, however. (Ref. 38 )


As the classical Greeks multiplied and migrated down the peninsula they did not develop a civilization of their own but, as barbarians, they wrecked one (Cretan and Mycenaean) and then built a new one out of the old. The Mycenaean cities and culture were so destroyed that even the art of writing was lost until about 800 B.C. when the Greeks adapted the Phoenician alphabet to their language. (Ref. 28 ) "Alpha", "beta", "gamma" are not Greek words, but come from Semitic terms for ox, house and camel.

The development of iron working techniques also contributed to cultural change and a well proportioned "geometric" pottery appeared about 900 B.C. This later turned up in Etruria in Italy, perhaps as copies. Early Greece was not fertile enough to support a fast- growing population and the need for more land, coupled with political oppression by the ruling classes led to two hundred years of extensive colonial expansion involving all the shores of the Mediterranean as well as the Aegean islands, Sicily, and Thrace. The colonies soon became independent of the mother cities, which continued to fight among themselves. Thucydides dates the earliest sea battle of history to about 712 B.C. between Corinthians and Corcyraeans. Corinth was formed from the union of a group of villages early in the 8th century B.C. and soon was wealthy because it was on the key land route between all the Hellenes (so-named from the mythical King Hellen, progenitor of all Greek peoples).

The Greeks added vowels to the Phoenician alphabet, and soon their language and their love of beauty fused into the Greek genius which transformed the world of that time.

NOTE: Insert Map Reference 97: Greek and Pheonician Colonies

The first Olympiad was held in 776 B.C. (Ref. 45 , 216 , 68 , 75 )

The fertile, wooded island of Euboea, just off the Greek coast became a great maritime power about the 9th century B.C. establishing a trading post at Al Mina on the coast of Syria which subsequently became a great source of gold and silver. Similarly, in the 8th century B.C. they established a trading post on the island of Pithecusae off the west coast of Italy for development of trade with the Etruscan city-states. (R-75)

Upper balkans

The upper Balkan area seethed with Dacians, Thracians and Greeks and at this time a horde of ferocious, bearded, barbarian giants, the Scythians, appeared around the Black Sea, displacing the Cimmerians from around the north shore and the Crimea.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?