<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >


Back to Europe 1500 to 1000 B.C.

Southern europe

Eastern mediterranean islands

The great island empires of previous centuries no longer existed, and all of these areas were integral parts of either Greece or Asian states. For example, the southern half of Cyprus was now under Phoenician influence, while the northern half, along with

Rhodes and Crete were under Greek control. At various periods around 800 B.C. Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians conquered Cyprus, but let native kings rule. Dorian Greeks continued to control Crete, however. (Ref. 38 )


As the classical Greeks multiplied and migrated down the peninsula they did not develop a civilization of their own but, as barbarians, they wrecked one (Cretan and Mycenaean) and then built a new one out of the old. The Mycenaean cities and culture were so destroyed that even the art of writing was lost until about 800 B.C. when the Greeks adapted the Phoenician alphabet to their language. (Ref. 28 ) "Alpha", "beta", "gamma" are not Greek words, but come from Semitic terms for ox, house and camel.

The development of iron working techniques also contributed to cultural change and a well proportioned "geometric" pottery appeared about 900 B.C. This later turned up in Etruria in Italy, perhaps as copies. Early Greece was not fertile enough to support a fast- growing population and the need for more land, coupled with political oppression by the ruling classes led to two hundred years of extensive colonial expansion involving all the shores of the Mediterranean as well as the Aegean islands, Sicily, and Thrace. The colonies soon became independent of the mother cities, which continued to fight among themselves. Thucydides dates the earliest sea battle of history to about 712 B.C. between Corinthians and Corcyraeans. Corinth was formed from the union of a group of villages early in the 8th century B.C. and soon was wealthy because it was on the key land route between all the Hellenes (so-named from the mythical King Hellen, progenitor of all Greek peoples).

The Greeks added vowels to the Phoenician alphabet, and soon their language and their love of beauty fused into the Greek genius which transformed the world of that time.

NOTE: Insert Map Reference 97: Greek and Pheonician Colonies

The first Olympiad was held in 776 B.C. (Ref. 45 , 216 , 68 , 75 )

The fertile, wooded island of Euboea, just off the Greek coast became a great maritime power about the 9th century B.C. establishing a trading post at Al Mina on the coast of Syria which subsequently became a great source of gold and silver. Similarly, in the 8th century B.C. they established a trading post on the island of Pithecusae off the west coast of Italy for development of trade with the Etruscan city-states. (R-75)

Upper balkans

The upper Balkan area seethed with Dacians, Thracians and Greeks and at this time a horde of ferocious, bearded, barbarian giants, the Scythians, appeared around the Black Sea, displacing the Cimmerians from around the north shore and the Crimea.

Questions & Answers

What is scarcity.
Npoanlarb Reply
when there is adequate resources
why our wants are limited
Npoanlarb Reply
nooo want is unlimited but resources are limited
and do to that there occurs scarcity and we have to make choice in order to have what we need if need be I will explain more
our wants are not limited but rather the resources
as we know that there are two principle of microeconomics scarcity of resources and they have alternative uses...
yes .....
because our resources are limited./we have a limited resources.
what is demand
Thank Reply
demand is something wt we called in economic theory of demand it simply means if price of product is increase then demand of product will decrease
inverse relationship between demand and price
in microeconomic
demand is what and how much you want and what's your need...
how can one be so with economics even while you have less knowledge in mathematics.
why is it that some products increases everyday by day
Chiamaka Reply
because demand is increase
because demand is increase
but how demand increases?
Because of the Marketing and purchasing power of people.
but how could we know that people's demands have increased everyday by day and how could we know that this is time to produced the products in the market. Is any connection among them
for normal good people demand remain the same if price of product will increase or not
see that some product which increases day by day is comes under normal good which is used by consumer
Seems hot discussing going here
If there are less products demand starts to increase for those products
Economics is really interesting to learn ....
see there is Inferior goods ands normal goods inferior good demand is rarely increase whereas as we talk about normal good demand will absolutely Increase whether price is increase or not
and demand for normal goods increase cause people's income as a while increases time to time
and it might also be that the cost of raw materials are high.
may be
obviously because demand is increasing.....and price is getting low.....
hmmm there is inverse relationship between demand and price
This is because the supply of those products in relation to raw materials are decreasing and they are also necessities. This crate shortage in the market, so sellers will rise the prices of those products.
Importance of economics
Odunayomi Reply
the nature and significance of economics studies
What is demand
Shuaib Reply
deman is amount of goods and services a consumer is willing and able to buy or purchase at a given price.
the willingness and ability of a body to purchase goods nd servicesbis called demand ,so if she/has ability but doesn't have willingness it's not a demand same if she or he has willingness but doesn't has ability it's not a demand too
Demand refers to as quantities of a goods and services in which consumers are willing and able to purchase at a given period of time and demand can also be defined as the desire or willingness and backed by the ability to pay.
What is Choice
Choice refers to the ability of a consumer or producer to decide which good, service or resource to purchase or provide from a range of possible options. Being free to chose is regarded as a fundamental indicator of economic well being and development.
choice is a act of selecting or choosing from the numerous or plenty wants.
demand is want and it is also what you need and able to afford a particular period of time... because demand changes with time.
Demand refers to the ability of the consumer to pay for a particular product at a given price
how does consumer make profit
Clifford Reply
by buying goods in bulk.
Compare and contract the function of commercial bank and the central bank of Nigeria
Akwi Reply
what do think is the difference between overhead costs and prime cost
what is economics
Mohamed Reply
economics is a social science that study's how resources can be used to produce goods and services for society
Economic is a science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scares means which have alternatives uses or purposes.
what is economics
Mohamed Reply
what is the basic economic problem
John Reply
unlimited wants vs limited resources
what economics is all about?
Nomuhle Reply
what is a new paradigm shift
Austen Reply
Paradigm shift it is the reconcilliation of fedural goods in production
fedural? what is that?
factors that affecting economic system
Bemen Reply
what is meant by broadening the tax base?
Fiona Reply
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now

Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history' conversation and receive update notifications?