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Norway

King Sigurd Magnusson, like King Harald before him, took up the fight against Moslem expansion by taking 60 Viking ships to fight in Portugal and Spain and then on to Morocco and the Balearic Islands. He was well received by his Norwegian predecessors (Normans) on Sicily, where Roger II Guiscard was duke. King Sigurd, with the consent of the pope, raised Roger to the rank of king and then proceeded on in 1110 to conquer the fortress Sidon, in Lebanon. The first cardinal to visit Norway was Nicholas, who later became Pope Adrian IV and his visit probably helped to make the Catholic Church the greatest power in Norway at the time. Most of the rest of the century was a period of confusion, marked by wars of succession and by a struggle against the growing power of the clergy. Nevertheless, there was expansion of trade and increasing prosperity. Sverre became king in 1184 and maintained a strong monarchy against both aristocratic and clerical opposition, thanks to support from small landowners. (Ref. 119, 95) Additional Notes

Sweden

King Sverker amalgamated the Sveas and the Goths and was then succeeded by Eric IX Jedvardsson in 1150. Erik restored Christianity and then conquered the heathen Finns, establishing seven-century domination over those people. (Ref. 222, 119)

Denmark

Cavalry was first used in Denmark in 1134 and this accentuated a feudal tendency as a new class of professional, military nobles appeared. In this period many Danes returned from England where William had started to persecute them and subsequently much Danish building had an English influence. Valdemar (or Waldemar) I, the Great, be came

Danish king in 1157 and gave the country a strong government, as trade increased. Copenhagen was founded as a market outlet by the chief minister, Bishop Absalon. Together the king and this minister wiped out the savage Wends, pirates from the Island of Rugen. Valdemar married two of his daughters to two of Frederick Barbarossa's sons. Absalon although not very scholarly himself, got his clerk, Saxe, to write Denmark's chronicles in Latin. Sweden never had such a chronicle and thus Swedish history is not well documented. (Ref. 117, 222)

Finland

It was raiding by the Finns on the Swedish coast which finally provoked the Swedish King Eric IX to retaliate by conquering Finland. He then withdrew most of his troops and left a Bishop Henry to convert the Finns. They promptly killed the missionary, although much later they made redemption by making him a saint. In the meantime, however, they reverted to paganism for another 50 years.

Overseas scandinavian centers

Iceland's Mount Hekla volcano erupted in 1104 and again in 1154, devastating farmland for 45 miles around its base. The Scandinavian colonies on Greenland continued throughout this century. (Ref. 222) Additional Notes

Eastern europe

Southern baltic area

When the Cuman invasion ended Russian trade with Constantinople, the exports of tallow, honey, wax and furs were sent via the Baltic to the West and the Baltic ports, already rich with fisheries, became even more important. In these states just south of the Baltic, Christianity came in by means of the German sword, through the Teutonic Knights, although the conversion was not actually official until after 1190. In the meantime, Poland subdued the Pomeranians (1102-1124) and King Boleslav III gained access to the Baltic Sea. He divided his realm into five principalities for his sons, with Cracow as the capital. The great landlords and knights had become well-defined social classes and along with the clergy became ever more powerful. After an eight year reign by Vladislav II (Ladislas), Boleslav IV took over in 1146. He was not a strong ruler and he lost territory to Albert the Bear and Henry the Lion. As far as the Germans were concerned, Poland was only a dukedom and Frederick Barbarossa again invaded Poland in 1157, forcing the submission of "Duke" Boleslav. There followed Mieszko III, who was so despotic that his own nobles drove him out in 1177 and then Casimir II, the Just. (Ref. 137, 222, 119)

Russia

This was the century of the decline and fall of the Kievan realm and according to the historical schema of Toynbee (Ref. 220) it represented the "Time of Troubles" in the Eastern Orthodox Christian Society, Russian Division. Between 1054 and 1224 there were 83 civil wars, 46 invasions of Russia, 16 wars waged by Russian states on others, and 293 princes disputing 64 thrones. (Ref . 49). Kiev, itself, succumbed internally to class warfare and a declining wealth, precipitated by the diversion of trade routes through Mediterranean channels and finally to external force as the Mongols invaded in the next century. The Cumans remained powerful in the south and continually raided until the local people fled north to the forest, emptying the steppe, but increasing the population of the central and northern principalities, including Moscow, which was founded in A.D. 1147, and Novgorod, which built up a far-flung empire far into the arctic. (Ref. 8). Vladimir Monomakh, Prince of Kiev, carried on numerous campaigns against the Cumans and his reign marked the last period of brilliance at Kiev. The Volga Bulgars still held the middle Volga region and prevented Russian expansion eastward. South of the Cumans in the Caucasus there was a large group of Alans and the Kingdom of Georgia. (Ref. 137)

The great banking houses of Florence started the European economy revival and Genoa followed. (Ref. 292)

The Irish text, the title of which translates as War of the Irish with the Foreigners, like many of the medieval sagas, is a piece of dynastic propaganda, written in this century. It starts with an account of Viking attacks of the 9th and 10th centuries and then goes into an heroic saga about 2 Munster kings, Mathgamain and his brother Brian Boru (further described on page 557), from whom the O'Brien kings traced their descent. (Ref. 301)

Throughout Scandinavia scattered royal estates having several houses served as bases for royal officials. (Ref. 301)

The death of King Magnus on his second expedition to Ulster in 1102, marks the end of the Viking Age. In western Norway two classes of freemen were recognized: the "hauldar", owning inherited land and other men of free descent, farming land not theirs by inheritance. The law of Trondelag recognized these two classes but also a third, lower class of landless freemen. "Mansbot" was an atonement price, the legal value of a man's life and varying according to his class. After a killing, a feud could be averted by paying the "mansbot" to the family, which could be extended to 4th or 5th cousins' Much that has been written about this may be pure fantasy, constructed by later medieval lawyers. Norway had a single king in this century, but his influence did not extend far inland. (Ref. 301)

Several Icelandic farms were smothered by tephra from the eruption of Mount Hekla, and many of these have been excavated. Power in Iceland was divided among many chieftains. The early church was not a royal institution, but early bishops were, in fact, chieftains. All chiefs fought for more land and power, but in the meeting of the Allthing once a year the unity of the country was symbolically expressed. This was the century when Icelanders began to compose sagas, first about Norwegian kings and Icelandic bishops, later about the families who were believed to have played prominent parts in the history of the country. Some 300 farms had been established in Greenland by this century. (Ref. 301)

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
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da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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