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Water rights are usually established by law. In the eastern United States, the " Doctrine of Riparian Rights " is the basis of rights of use. Anyone whose land is next to a flowing stream can use the water as long as some is left for people downstream. Things are handled differently in the western United States, which uses a "first-come, first-served" approach known as the " Principle of Prior Appropriation " is used. By using water from a stream, the original user establishes a legal right for the ongoing use of the water volume originally taken. Unfortunately, when there is insufficient water in a stream, downstream users suffer.

The case of the Colorado River highlights the problem of water rights. The federal government built a series of dams along the Colorado River, which drains a huge area of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The purpose of the project was to provide water for cities and towns in this arid area and for crop irrigation. However, as more and more water was withdrawn from these dams, less water was available downstream. Only a limited volume of water reached the Mexican border and this was saline and unusable. The Mexican government complained that their country was being denied use of water that was partly theirs, and as a result a desalinization plant was built to provide a flow of usable water.

Common law generally gives property owners rights to the groundwater below their land. However, a problem can arise in a situation where several property owners tap into the same groundwater source. The Ogallala Aquifer, which stretches from Wyoming to Texas, is used extensively by farmers for irrigation. However, this use is leading to groundwater depletion, as the aquifer has a very slow recharge rate. In such cases as this, a general plan of water use is needed to conserve water resources for future use.

Water diversion

Water is necessary for all life, as well as for human agriculture and industry. Great effort and expense has gone into diverting water from where it occurs naturally to where people need it to be. The large-scale redistribution of such a vital resource has consequences for both people and the environment. The three projects summarized below illustrate the costs and benefits and complex issues involved in water diversion.

Garrison diversion project

The purpose of the Garrison Diversion Project was to divert water from the Missouri River to the Red River in North Dakota, along the way irrigating more than a million acres of prairie, attracting new residents and industries, and providing recreation opportunities.

Construction began in the 1940s, and although $600 million has been spent, only 120 miles of canals and a few pumping stations have been built. The project has not been completed due to financial problems and widespread objections from environmentalists, neighboring states, and Canada. Some object to flooding rare prairie habitats. Many are concerned that moving water from one watershed to another will also transfer non-native and invasive species that could attack native organisms, devastate habitats, and cause economic harm to fishing and other industries. As construction and maintenance costs skyrocketed, taxpayers expressed concern that excessive public money was being spent on a project with limited public benefits.

Melamchi water supply project

The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal is an important urban center with insufficient water supplies. One million people receive piped water for just a few hours a day. Groundwater reservoirs are being drained, and water quality is quite low. The Melamchi Water Supply Project will divert water to Kathmandu through a 28 km tunnel from the Melamchi River in a neighboring valley. Expected to cost a half a billion dollars, the project will include improved water treatment and distribution facilities.

While the water problems in the Kathmandu Valley are severe, the project is controversial. Proponents say it will improve public health and hygiene and stimulate the local economy without harming the Melamchi River ecosystem. Opponents suggest that the environmental safeguards are inadequate and that a number of people will be displaced. Perhaps their biggest objection is that the project will privatize the water supply and raise costs beyond the reach of the poor. They claim that cheaper and more efficient alternatives have been ignored at the insistence of international banks, and that debt on project loans will cripple the economy.

South to north water diversion project

Many of the major cities in China are suffering from severe water shortages, especially in the northern part of the country. Overuse and industrial discharge has caused severe water pollution. The South to North Water Diversion project is designed to shift enormous amounts of water from rivers in southern China to the dry but populous northern half of the country. New pollution control and treatment facilities to be constructed at the same time should improve water quality throughout the country.

The diversion will be accomplished by the creation of three rivers constructed by man, each more than 1,000 km long. They will together channel nearly 50 billion cubic meters of water annually, creating the largest water diversion project in history. Construction is expected to take 10 years and cost $60 billion, but after 2 years of work, the diversion is already over budget.

Such a massive shift in water resources will have large environmental consequences throughout the system. Water levels in rivers and marshes will drop sharply in the south and rise in the north. People and wildlife will be displaced along the courses of the new rivers.

Despite its staggering scale, the South to North Project alone will not be sufficient to solve water shortages. China still will need to increase water conservation programs, make industries and agriculture more water efficient, and raise public awareness of sustainable water practices.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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