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The Maya had a number of languages, all closely related but not mutually intelligible. There were two principal divisions - the lowlands groups, including Yucatec, Chol and Chorti - and the highlands (Guatemalan) which included Mam and Quiche. The educated Maya were profoundly intellectual and we have noted their mathematics ( 0 to 100 A.D. ) and astronomy ( A.D. 301 to 400 ) previously. A great renaissance of Mayan Culture now took place in the cities of Yucatan, gradually supplanting the importance of Peten, in the south. (Ref. 177 , 146 , 215 , 163 ) According to traditions, picture writings and Mexican manuscripts written after the conquest, the Toltecs

This suggests the probability of more continuity and interrelationships among the original Mexican populations than often stated. Modern histories do not mention the Toltecs as a separate people until about the 9th century.
were banished from their native country northwest of Mexico in 596 and proceeded southward. (Ref. 205 )

This century marks the beginning of Period V of Costa Rican prehistory, with each of three archaeological zones developing independently. In Guanacaste-Nicoya there was the beginning of the famous Nicoya polychrome pottery tradition which resembled Maya ceramics of the Late Classic period of Honduras and El Salvador. The progress in Panama seemed to come more or less to a halt and this country never developed any truly state-centered societies as seen farther north in Central America. (Ref. 266 )

South america

Northern and western south america

Along various parts of the Magdalena River Valley in Colombia and particularly near San Agustin are enormous piles of debris, some of which have been excavated revealing sculptured monoliths and the whole indicating a great ceremonial center something like a Maya complex. Radio-carbon datings indicate activity in this 6th century with continuation for another 1,000 years. Since it has some similarities to both the Olmecs and to Easter Island the question arises as to whether this astonishing statuary was local in origin or from migrating people from Central America or even from Polynesia. Just east of Popayan on the eastern hot-land part of Andean Columbia is an interior, isolated valley called "Tierradentro" where there are interesting monuments perhaps dating to this same era, although it may be a secondary society having existed a thousand years later. Accurate dating has not been accomplished. Tombs there have long ago been looted, probably of gold and jewels, but three dimensional statues reminiscent of Easter Island and representing anthropomorphic gods are comparable to those of San Agustin. (Ref. 62 )

Peru consisted of about nine separate regions, each with its own local art style in this century. The Moche, or their descendants, and the Nasca were supreme but other states of some consequence were Cajamarca, Recuary, Lima, Huarpa, Waru, Tiahuanaco and Atacameno, all of which used gold, silver and copper for tools as well as jewelry. In Ecuador, beginning about A.D. 500, there were people of the Milagro Culture, noted for elaborate work in gold and for artificial mounds for burial places and home sites. Some of the latter seem to be associated with ridge systems and others with rectangular earth- works, probably made to farm lands subject to seasonal flooding. This culture may have been an off-shoot of the Moche of Peru, described in previous chapters. Similar farming ridges cover many thousands of acres in Bolivia and Colombia and are present near Lake Titicaca, although the dating of these has not been done. (Ref. 9 , 62 )

Eastern south america

There were farming tribes in the Amazon rain forest, cultivating manioc. Farther south the Tuni-Guarania tribes had migrated from the Amazon basin into the Brazilian forest and savannah. In what in now Argentina, there was the Aguada Culture about A.D. 600, characterized by black and yellow pottery with feline motives. (Ref. 8 , 45 )

Forward to America: A.D. 601 to 700

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Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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