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Mexico and central america

Tula, the capital city of the Toltecs, was violently destroyed in the middle of this century. Although it has not been completely excavated the indications are that it was a large city with all the principal features of Toltec art and architecture.

A new Indian civilization appears to have been in an active growth phase at this time in Aztlan

Aztlan is the source of the word "Aztec" and means "people of heron place".
. No one is sure of the precise location of Aztlan, although Professor Sigberto Jimenez Morena suggests that it was an island village on the San Pedro River delta, some 450 miles northwest of present Mexico City, now called Mexcallitan. This has been called the Venice of Mexico because in rainy seasons the streets flood and the people move about by canoe. The adjacent Mangrove swamps have thousands of herons, including at least 15 different species. The Aztec legends say that their small tribe moved from Aztlan into the area of Tula, once the capital of the great Toltec Empire, and there they picked up what they could of the Toltec civilization from its descendants. Toynbee (Ref. 220 ) calls this nascent Aztec Society the "Mexic" and in this 12th century it consisted of various small states, with Chichimec people forming petty kingdoms along the Valley of Mexico. One site was Tenayuca. (Ref. 138 , 220 , 146 , 88 )

South america

The greatest activity of the 12th century in South America continued to be in the region of northern Peru and what is now Ecuador. By mid-century the Chimus, in their great kingdom of Chimor, had revived the old Moche Kingdom, in a political and geographic sense. They were great builders and extended the old Moche irrigation and road systems. Their black pottery, however, was in contrast to the vigorous polychromatic Mochica pieces. Gold was apparently plentiful and was used chiefly in the pure state, although sometimes alloyed with silver or copper. Fantastic, intricate and delicate golden objects of the Chimu were found in 1937 in the area of Lambayeque, Peru, near the Ecuador border. The population of the nation may have been 250,000 and Chan Chan, the capital, covered 3 1/2 square miles. Ca jamarquilla and Pachacamac were additional large cities, each larger than Rome or Alexandria.

Five or six hundred miles south of the Chimu the Chincha Basin was also being rejuvenated on a large scale, with cultivated land extending over about 12 miles on the formerly sterile sea coast terraces. Some 37,000 acres of land of the Canete Basin were now utilized and this was accomplished by construction of lateral canals 24 to 36 miles long. The Ica and Nazca basins remained quiet. (Ref. 62 )

According to Inca myth it was in this century that Manco Capac and his sister-wife, Mana Ocllo, left the Island of the Sun in Lake Titicaca and went forth as son and daughter of the Sun God, Inti, to found the Inca Empire, "The Kingdom of Gold". (Ref. 10 )

The Diaguites remained in the Argentine Andes and, although dating in inconclusive, sometime in this approximate time-frame they practiced an advanced metallurgy, using copper ore pulverized on stone mortars and mixed with zinc, gold and silver. This was then melted in hearths, using the wind as bellows, and finally poured into molds. Gold was beaten into very thin sheets and used to decorate masks and jewelry by the reverse hammering technique. (Ref. 62 )

Forward to America: A.D. 1201 to 1300

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Some 300 farms had been established in Greenland by this century. (Ref. 301 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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