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The Bonito people monitored the solar cycles with a solar observatory on Fajada Butte. Spiral patterns carved into native rock caught shafts of light between other rocks in a precise way, which indicated the solstices and equinoxes. A scarcity of burials at the Great Chaco complex has posed some questions and resulted in numerous theories. Was this only a large ceremonial center serving as a mecca for pilgrims coming in on the great road system? Or was it a type of federal city for handling the outlier's trade and political alliances? (Ref. 277 ) Near the end of the century the pueblo dwellers increased their defenses, building watch towers, doubling wall thicknesses and restricting access to their homes, suggesting that the Apaches were reaching this territory. (Ref. 210 )

According to ancient Indian beliefs the San Francisco Peaks

These peaks are just north of Flagstaff and Williams, Arizona.
which are surrounded by a large volcanic area in northern Arizona, are the home of Kachina spirits. Some Indians had lived in pit-houses near those peaks since about A.D. 600 but suddenly in A.D. 1065 there was a violent volcanic eruption, with a cone of cinders and ash thrown a thousand feet high and a stream of lava flowed on the ground. Black ash covered 800 square miles and the terrified Indians left. When they eventually cautiously returned they found that the ash had trapped water beneath and had produced a very fertile area which could be farmed with very little extra moisture needed. Archeologists have given those Indians the name "Senagua", meaning "without water". The rich soil attracted others, including Hohokam, Mogollon and Cohonina and there was an interchange of ideas and cultures. (Ref. 210 )

The Mogollon Culture of southern New Mexico and eastern Arizona had continued through the centuries in various stages of development. The people of that area now began to build houses in the pueblo style with buildings above ground. They had fine, polychrome member pottery, some with red designs on brown and some with rectangular designs with white stripes. Other pottery was black on white with complicated curvilinear and rectilinear designs. Cotton was grown and used as cloth. (Ref. 45 )

A unique Indian culture, which was earlier considered of unknown antecedents and descendants, flourished about 950 to 1 150 in southwestern New Mexico, just east of what is now Silver City. They were called Mimbrenos , after their river valley and were peaceful corn growers who created some of the most beautiful of American Indian pottery. This had imaginative decorations and was all accomplished without the use of the potter's wheel or the kiln. This work is coveted by museums and collectors throughout the world. It is known now that these people were part of the Mogollons. (Ref. 223 , 210 )

Mexico and central america

The Yucatec and the Toltec civilizations, which were discussed in the last chapter, were both failing by the end of this century. According to tradition, drought and sickness took their toll among the Toltecs and their monarchy ended in 1052

Trager (Ref. 222 ) refers to the epidemic and decline as occurring in the Mayan Empire , but this is probably just another error in that text.
. Their land then lay devastated for a century. On the Gulf coast, the Huastec Society appeared at about this time. (Ref. 205 )

South america

In this century the coastal societies came under the control of the Chimu (formerly Chimor), who built the great capital of Chan Chan near the present city of Trujillo, near the sea. This was in the old Mochican area but was an entirely new capital. From this century until the subjugation of these people by the Incas, some four centuries later, the sequence of events is very unclear. Some of the buildings of Chan Chan are very large and may have been built in different periods. Some believe part of the edifices was constructed by invaders from the north (even from as far away as Ecuador) in about 1200.

Near Chan Chan the powerful Chicama River could be used, via a long canal, for irrigating a huge desert zone. (Ref. 62 )

The Diaguites, originally of the semi-arid Argentine Andes, probably existed at this time and continued to live there until confrontation with the Spaniards some 500 years later. They have left ruins of small fortified settlements on easily defensible crests, approached by narrow, paved roads, always located near a river or spring. Farmland was terraced to save rain water. They made rock carvings and unusual pottery, one type of which is the "Santa Maria" urn, with a wide neck and side handles. (Ref. 62 )

Forward to America: A.D. 1101 to 1200

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Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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