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The Bonito people monitored the solar cycles with a solar observatory on Fajada Butte. Spiral patterns carved into native rock caught shafts of light between other rocks in a precise way, which indicated the solstices and equinoxes. A scarcity of burials at the Great Chaco complex has posed some questions and resulted in numerous theories. Was this only a large ceremonial center serving as a mecca for pilgrims coming in on the great road system? Or was it a type of federal city for handling the outlier's trade and political alliances? (Ref. 277 ) Near the end of the century the pueblo dwellers increased their defenses, building watch towers, doubling wall thicknesses and restricting access to their homes, suggesting that the Apaches were reaching this territory. (Ref. 210 )

According to ancient Indian beliefs the San Francisco Peaks

These peaks are just north of Flagstaff and Williams, Arizona.
which are surrounded by a large volcanic area in northern Arizona, are the home of Kachina spirits. Some Indians had lived in pit-houses near those peaks since about A.D. 600 but suddenly in A.D. 1065 there was a violent volcanic eruption, with a cone of cinders and ash thrown a thousand feet high and a stream of lava flowed on the ground. Black ash covered 800 square miles and the terrified Indians left. When they eventually cautiously returned they found that the ash had trapped water beneath and had produced a very fertile area which could be farmed with very little extra moisture needed. Archeologists have given those Indians the name "Senagua", meaning "without water". The rich soil attracted others, including Hohokam, Mogollon and Cohonina and there was an interchange of ideas and cultures. (Ref. 210 )

The Mogollon Culture of southern New Mexico and eastern Arizona had continued through the centuries in various stages of development. The people of that area now began to build houses in the pueblo style with buildings above ground. They had fine, polychrome member pottery, some with red designs on brown and some with rectangular designs with white stripes. Other pottery was black on white with complicated curvilinear and rectilinear designs. Cotton was grown and used as cloth. (Ref. 45 )

A unique Indian culture, which was earlier considered of unknown antecedents and descendants, flourished about 950 to 1 150 in southwestern New Mexico, just east of what is now Silver City. They were called Mimbrenos , after their river valley and were peaceful corn growers who created some of the most beautiful of American Indian pottery. This had imaginative decorations and was all accomplished without the use of the potter's wheel or the kiln. This work is coveted by museums and collectors throughout the world. It is known now that these people were part of the Mogollons. (Ref. 223 , 210 )

Mexico and central america

The Yucatec and the Toltec civilizations, which were discussed in the last chapter, were both failing by the end of this century. According to tradition, drought and sickness took their toll among the Toltecs and their monarchy ended in 1052

Trager (Ref. 222 ) refers to the epidemic and decline as occurring in the Mayan Empire , but this is probably just another error in that text.
. Their land then lay devastated for a century. On the Gulf coast, the Huastec Society appeared at about this time. (Ref. 205 )

South america

In this century the coastal societies came under the control of the Chimu (formerly Chimor), who built the great capital of Chan Chan near the present city of Trujillo, near the sea. This was in the old Mochican area but was an entirely new capital. From this century until the subjugation of these people by the Incas, some four centuries later, the sequence of events is very unclear. Some of the buildings of Chan Chan are very large and may have been built in different periods. Some believe part of the edifices was constructed by invaders from the north (even from as far away as Ecuador) in about 1200.

Near Chan Chan the powerful Chicama River could be used, via a long canal, for irrigating a huge desert zone. (Ref. 62 )

The Diaguites, originally of the semi-arid Argentine Andes, probably existed at this time and continued to live there until confrontation with the Spaniards some 500 years later. They have left ruins of small fortified settlements on easily defensible crests, approached by narrow, paved roads, always located near a river or spring. Farmland was terraced to save rain water. They made rock carvings and unusual pottery, one type of which is the "Santa Maria" urn, with a wide neck and side handles. (Ref. 62 )

Forward to America: A.D. 1101 to 1200

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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