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Mexico, central america, and the caribbean

By 7,000 B.C. in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico there were people living in rock shelters and using stone cooking pots which were left in the center of the hearth. Maize was used in the same valley between 6,000 and 5,000 B.C. and at some point the turkey was domesticated. Before the development of pottery some peoples may have used animal stomachs as liquid containers to hang over fires. In the same valley there is evidence of the use of six food resources--the maguey plant, cactus fruits (prickly pear), tree legumes like the mesquite, wild grasses, deer and rabbits. Cultivated plants probably made up only 5% of the diet, as opposed to 54% from hunting and 41% from collecting wild plants. The common bean and maize were introduced into the valley about 5,000 B.C. Maize apparently went under considerable genetic change with cultivation, but since it lacks an important amino acid, it was fortunate for the Indians that it was eaten in connection with beans, which supplied the deficit. (See also Africa in the 16th century C.E. ). There was squash in the Mexican highlands before 5,000 B.C. (Ref. 211 , 209 )

South america

As early as 8,000 B.C. the need for artistic expression apparently existed in the high Andes. We mentioned in the last chapter that prehistoric people had painted clothing, but now we can add necklaces, bracelets, carved pendants and geometrically marked bones, painted green. These people ate prickly pear cactus, alder seeds, tomatoes and plants with rhizomes and tubers such as jiquimas, potatoes, ullucu and possibly manioc and sweet potatoes. There is also refuse of many land mammals such as bucks and roe deer, vixcahas, camelids and rodents, as well as the remains of fish. Although the caves were sixty miles from the ocean, marine mollusks have been found, suggesting that these men migrated at times to the seashore, probably living in the condensed fog oases called lomas , as the beach land otherwise is completely arid. By 7,000 B.C. there were all sorts of projectile points in Venezuela, Chile, Bolivia and Peru. Long-headed human skeletons along with both extinct and modern animals have been found in Brazil dated to the same time.

Natives of both Americas are of extremely varied types. In South America there are people with Caucasian appearance but dark brown skin, along with Mongolian types with African faces, but of pale or sallow complexion. Big, straight non-aquiline noses are seen frequently near Cuzco in the high Andes, where non-Mongolian characteristics mix with true Asiatic ones. Many scholars such as Julian Steward, Paul Rivet, Miguel Covarrubias and Heine Gildern, as well as Heyerdahl and Fell, who will be mentioned often in this manuscript, are all coming to the conclusion that transoceanic voyages from southern Asia, Polynesia, even Australia or Africa, have helped people the New World since the Bering Strait migration. The early men of 8,000 to 4,000 B.C. unearthed in the excavations of Professor Engel (Ref. 62 ) were all dolichocephals, prognathous, big-boned and tall, whereas the 16th century people found by the Spaniards were of only mediocre height, meso or brachycephalic with short limbs and slender frames.

By 6,000 B.C. some Andean populations were already advanced to the stage of comparable groups in the Near East, not yet true farmers or herders, but living a sedentary type of life, occupying well defined territories. On a south Peruvian plain between mountain spurs, inland from the coast at about the 16th parallel, there were hundreds of inhabitants using water from now dry wadis. Seashore villages of the same millennium have also been found and because of the complete surface dessication, humans have been uncovered by simply brushing off the sand. They still have their clothes, skin and eyes after 7,000 to 9,000 years. Milling stones have been found in every hut and in graves, particularly in the Santa Valley of Peru and the eastern Andes. It is possible that llamas and alpacas began to be domesticated on the eastern slopes at about 6,000 B.C.

In the Columbia and Venezuela areas between 7,000 and 3,000 B.C. Meso-Indians lived, eating seafood, berries, seeds, roots and tubers. Remnant now can be identified by the large mounds of shells, ashes and food debris. These northern South Americans were also navigators, for traces of the same people are found on all adjacent islands. Documentation regarding humid Chile and Argentina is lacking in this early period, although groups of pre-agriculturalists certainly occupied the western slope of the Chilean Andes at times about 8,000 B.C. although perhaps not continuously. It is possible that some fifty valleys in central Peru and arid Chile were inhabited by groups of up to 2,000 people before agriculture appeared on the coast. (Ref. 209 , 45 , 62 )

Excavations at Anangula Island in the Aleutian chain show evidence of settlement there around 7,000 B.C. Mummies on neighboring islands are wrapped in furs and woven grasses. (Ref. 310 )

Paleo-Indian skeletons, a man and boy with heads resting on turtle shells, found at Round Rock, Texas, have been dated at about 7000 B.C. (Ref. 298 )

Forward to America: 5000 to 3000 B.C.

    Choose different region

  • Intro to Era
  • Africa
  • Central and Northern Asia
  • Europe
  • The Far East
  • The Indian Subcontinent
  • The Near East
  • Pacific

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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