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America

Back to America: 400 to 301 B.C.

North america

In the far north the Dorset phase of the Arctic Small Tool tradition continued. This Dorset Society was to last overall, some sixteen centuries. (Ref. 189 )

By this century, for reasons unknown, the Adena Culture had faded and almost disappeared, but a new North American Indian culture made its appearance in Illinois and soon spread to Ohio. Named the "Hopewell" after an Illinois mound group, this eventually spread widely over a huge portion of the eastern United States, stretching from the Mississippi River to Florida. Although the people probably cultivated corn and other crops, hunting and gathering were still of critical importance. They built elaborate earthworks, some for defensive purposes and some as burial mounds. They worked in copper, mica, obsidian, soap-stone and wood as well as clay. Copper and mica cutouts in various designs were seen in effigy pipes and occasional pottery. Rock carvings of satyr masks almost identical with some of Carthaginian occupied Sardinia and Carthaginian coins of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. have allegedly been found along the Arkansas River both above and below Wichita, Kansas, according to Barry Fell, and he feels positive that the Carthaginians traded on the Atlantic side of America for lumber, gold and furs. (Ref. 45 , 66 )

In the southwest, in southern New Mexico and eastern Arizona, Coshise Indians continued their agricultural, hunting and gathering society, but with still more improvement in the type of corn, squash and beans, so that a true farming community had materialized.

Mexico and central america

As the Mayan Society began to flourish we must not fail to remember that the Olmecs left a heritage of religious beliefs, artistic symbolism and other cultural traditions to all subsequent Mexican people. Recent excavations near Coba, Mexico, on the Yucatan peninsula have been called the Late Pre-classic Maya period by Mexican archeologists, with a dating going back to 300 B.C. and with a peak at A.D. 200. The Mayas excelled in astronomy and developed a very complex system of chronology (perhaps originating with the Olmecs) which was remarkably exact in its calculation. For example, they calculated that 405 full moons occurred in a period of 11,900 days, while today astronomers make it 11,959,888 days, thus differing by 1 day every 292 years or less than five minutes a year! They recorded their language in a complex hieroglyphic script composed partly of ideograms representing whole words or ideas and partly of phonetic symbols for sounds, much as did ancient Egyptian and modern Japanese. Scholars are still working on decoding this language, which is still spoken by some two million people. (Ref. 176 )

In Costa Rica this Middle to Late Period IV can be viewed as a time of contact with more developed Mesoamerican cultures. Superb human and zoomorphic ceramic effigies were produced at this time. In the Central Highlands-Atlantic Watershed, household remains also resemble Mesoamerican patterns; small, rectangular houses are sometimes accompanied by bell-shaped storage pits. The pottery was adorned with any number of tropical reptiles with the color chiefly red on buff. (Ref. 265 ) The archeological record of western Panama begins at about 300 B.C. and includes ceramics found in the Rio Chiriqui rockshelters. They were similar to those described in Costa Rica. We shall note in later chapters that this was an area where big chiefdoms developed. (Ref. 266 )

South america

There were apparently any number of small, localized although prosperous societies in various parts of the Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia complex in this century. About this time a numerous tribe arrived in the Chilca Basin just south of present day Lima, building clusters of dwelling houses made of conical, hand molded clay blocks, a temple and store-house-fortress. Their temple resembled a Polynesian "marae", and large and impressive adobe pyramids were constructed. There were perhaps 2,500 people to a village, living on corn, sea-food and potatoes of cultivated species, the first in Peru. Seven Lapa Lapa

A term Engel (Ref. 62 ) uses for the Chilca Basin dwellers.
systems with some 10,000 structures made of heavy stone have been mapped out. They had some traits in common with the Nazcas who lived farther south and were their contemporaries - such things as pipes with ten holes, triangular obsidian projectile points and certain types of dishes. (Ref. 255 , 62 )

The Paracas ceremonial center on the south coast of Peru faded at about 200 B.C. although there appears some confusion about dates in regard to the Paracas-Nazca time periods. Fell (Ref. 66 ) reports carbon dating of the Paracas in the middle south Peru area back about the 5th century B.C., while Engel (Ref. 62 ) makes it much later, although he agrees that what he calls "Paracas I" was gone before 200 B.C.

In 1982 the National Geographic Society (Ref. 255 ) dated the Paracas Period as 550 to 200 B.C.
This territory was originally part of the Chavin society area and some Chavin decorations were continued. There now appeared a recently identified Vicus Culture which existed at the bend of the Maranon River almost on the present Ecuador-Peru border. This appears to have begun about 220 B.C. and lasted for approximately five hundred years. From the artistic standpoint these people are identified by intricate sheet- gold figures. Nose and ear ornaments employing both gold and silver were developed there and carried on even into much later Inca days. (Ref. 45 , 124 )

The high culture Tiahuanaco made small micriolithic projectile points of obsidian, quartz or flint, and bolas used for catching camelids were typical of the area. Some Tiahuanacoid pottery of the era shows an eye on figures that became Nazcoid or almond shaped, suggesting a hybridization of these two cultures. The jewels of Tiahuanaco were very fine and when faces were carved the noses were aquiline rather than straight, as shown on the winged god of the famed Gateway of the Sun, and as found on the gods of Easter Island. (Ref. 62 )

At Chiripa, on the shores of Lake Titicaca there are interesting excavated architectural styles dating to about 300 B.C., where the walls were built with unfired clay bricks painted red, green and white, resting on a pebble base. All walls were double with the space between apparently used for storage bins and some as stables for guinea pigs . The roofs must have been of straw. The attached graves showed malachite beads and hammered, thin sheets of gold. The pottery had a stylized decoration using Greek-like step patterns and other geometric forms.

Forward to America: 200 to 101 B.C.

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Questions & Answers

how environment affect demand and supply of commodity ?
Amos Reply
Wht at the criteria for market ?
Amos
what is difference between monitory policy and fiscal policy?
Malik Reply
monetary policy is a policy thrust by National Govt(CBN) to influence government spending, purchase &taxes
Frank
necessity of economics
Pamela Reply
I will say want,choice,opportunity cost,scarcity,scale of preference
Alao
what is monopoly market.How price output are determined under monopoly market
bisham
b) Monopoly market is an impecfect market where s single firm having the innovation to produce a particular commodity.Prices are determined through output since there are no other competitive.
Frank
Monopoly market:firm has market power & does not respond to market price
Frank
Explain the process of price determination under perfect competition market with suitable diagram
bisham Reply
Price determination under perfect competition via this process :firms have no market power to influence price rather firms respond to market price.
Frank
price is different from demand- demand is amount of commodity
Effah Reply
demand is amount /quantity of commodity a potential buyer is willing to buy at a given price at market
Frank
demand is a desire of customer on commodity with the ability to pay it and willing to buy it at given price of commodity
Harika
demand is price of what
Faith Reply
show that shortrun average cost
Baby Reply
what is economics
Mbah Reply
what is money
Mbah
what is money
Mbah
Difine macro economics
agaba
money is a medium of exchange between goods and services,maybe inform of currency.
Wesonga
Economics is study of how human beings strive to satisfy numerous wants using limited available resources.
Wesonga
how do you find the maximum number of workers the firms should employ order to produce where there are increasing returns
Jane
what are implications of computing national income?.
agaba
pl
MUDASIRU
what is the formulae for calculating national income
MUDASIRU
it calculated by value added method
Praveen
classify the production units like agriculture, banking, transport etc
Praveen
money is anything that is generally acceptetable for human
Ogbaji
Estimate the net value added(NVA) at fixed cost by each industrial structure
Praveen
definition of unemployment
Adam Reply
what are the causes of unemployment?
Mbubi Reply
The main causes of unemployment are listed below. 1. Frictional unemployment 2. Cyclical unemployment 3. Structural unemployment
assani
We can also categorize the causes on a broader sense as: 1. Political and 2. Social cause As unemployeement root causes are embaded in this two.
Yonathan
would opportunity cost exist if there was no scarcity?
assani
yes just because the opportunity cost arose when there is Alternative to choose among the alternatives.
BADAMASIU
I am thinking that, if our resources were unlimited, then there wouldn't be any need to forgo some wants. Hence the inexistence if opportunity cost
assani
Politics
Job
politics has done what?
assani
consider time assani
Mary
I'm Emmanuel,...I taught the main cause is the change in gov't.
Emmanuel
...Lack of capital to set up a firm respectively
Emmanuel
🙈
Emmanuel
I would like to bring in Educational levels can also be the cause the cause of the problem respectively
Emmanuel
I think the main causes of unemployment is lack of INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT OVER POPULATION OVER DEPENDENT ON GOVERNMENT LACK OF SELF EMPOWERMENT...
ananti
lack of skills among the new generation is the serious issue.
Vishal
Where I come from , I don't see why education or personal aspects seem to do with unimployment, technically the motivation and eigerness in all works of live is there , dispite the cultural influence and physical bearriors;the thing we lacking is Government Support and open market ethics.
Joe
sorry about that-(repation). We have a over powering ethical political system that's displacing the marketing asspects of economy and causing large scale unemployment right across the board...
Joe
can someone Explain Expansionary Monetary Policy and Contractionary Monetary Policy Using one of the instrument of Monetary Policy? Please am kinda lost here?. ta
Emmanuel Reply
using a graph show the case of substitute and compliment goods
Ade Reply
can anyone give me a simple explanation to Five Sector Macroeconomics?
Emmanuel
Can someone please define what economics is
jason Reply
economics simply is a social science subject that study human behavior.
dajan
economics is a social science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means that has alternative uses
Alao
Can someone please tell me how to calculate GDP
Emmanuel
emmanual kapal to calculate GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has three method in calculating it (1)income approach (2) expenditure approach (3) value added method
Alao
thanks Alae
Emmanuel
u are welcome
Alao
in basic terms economics is revered to as battery system, it date back to when Men sees the need to exchange sapless goods and produce to gain , either wealth , basic necessities or to establish trading ties for personal benefit or social asspects in terms of coexistence and continuity, future .
Joe
what is the law of demand
Berlinda Reply
keep other thing constant, when the price increases demand decrease when the price decreases demand increases of the commodity.
sj
all things being equal,quantity demanded decrease as price increase and increase as price decrease
Seth
there's practial joke to it ..." the higher the demand ; scarcity, increase in production and drop in quality"... quite the controversy - for example China vs Europe, United States and we are all boxed up in between somewhere...
Joe
Other thing remain constant the low price of commodity the high quantity of commodity and vice versa is true
Baraka
Explain Effective demand
Anita Reply
What is effective demand
Anita
like Modi is in demand...best example of effective demand
Pranav
Don't get you
Anita
Anita you mean you don't get me or who?
Onyeking
level of demand that represents a real intention to purchase by people with the means to pay
Pranav
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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