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Social sciences


Grade 8

Module 8

Industrialisation in south africa

Industrialisation in south africa

South Africa is unbelievably rich in minerals. Minerals like gold, diamonds, platinum and necessary basic metals like copper, tin, iron, lead and zinc make mining and the subsequent job creation, possible. The only other country with a similar variety of minerals and metals, is Russia.

the discovery of Gold and Diamonds in SA

By the middle of the nineteenth century Britain found the territories that she had colonized in South Africa to be an economical drawback. Droughts in the Cape Colony, fights in the Orange Free State with the Basutu, and weak rural markets in the old ZAR (Transvaal) made Britain decide to hand over the government of these territories by signing the Sand River Convention in 1852 with Transvaal and the Bloemfontein Convention in 1854 with the Orange Free State.

The discovering of gold in 1868 north of the Limpopo River, at first drew no attention, because in 1867 the first diamond was found near Hope Town. These alluvial diamonds were found in the silt near rivers. On both sides of the Vaal River more diamonds were found, which caused an influx of miners. The miners were unable to reach an agreement about their rights with President Pretorius, the leader of the OFS, and declared themselves an independent republic at Klipdrift.

During 1870 and 1871 diamonds were discovered further from the Vaal River, first at Dutoitspan (Kimberley) and later at Vooruitzicht. This became known as one of the biggest diamond discoveries in the world and miners from all over the world descended on the diamond fields. Conflict among the different claimants of the diamond bearing areas, the republics, colonies and tribal captains was unavoidable.

Although J.H. Davis had already discovered the first gold of the well-known Witwatersrand in 1852 on a farm near Krugersdorp, he was forced by the ZAR Government to keep quiet about it. Other gold discoveries were made, like the find by Walker and Harrison on the farm Langlaagte. Only in 1886 it became clear that this discovery was the important main reef of the Witwatersrand.

The town of Johannesburg developed on the farm Randjeslaagte. Transporters could no longer cope with taking people and goods to and from the mines, so railway lines were built. In 1892 Johannesburg was connected to Cape Town by rail; and in 1895 to Durban.

Activity 1:

Time-line exercise

[lo 1.2, 1.4, 1.5, 2.1, 2.2]

  • Draw a TIME-LINE on which you can show what happened on the South African diamond and gold fields that was discussed previously. Do it like this:

a) Write the words TIME-LINE and the topic of the time line, on top.


c) Then WRITE down the DATES beneath one another.

d) Now FILL in the ACTIONS that corresponds to each date, next to the date. Make sure that every fact is complete.

Activity 2:

Source a and b

[lo 1.2, 1.3, 3.1, 3.3]

  • Read the following sources and then answer the questions:

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11044/1.1
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