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Low-pass filtering with sound

Use wavread to load the sound castanets44m.wav. Perform low-pass filtering with the filter defined above, starting with a = 500*2*pi , but also try different values.

Play the original and the low-passed version of the sound. Plot their frequency content (Fourier transforms) as well.

Optional: low-pass filtering

  1. Create an impulse train as the input signal x(t) using the following MATLAB command, >>x = repmat([zeros(1, 99) 1], 1, 5);
  2. Use the low-pass filter defined earlier to low-pass the impulse train. Choose a cutoff of 20.
  3. Plot the two signals x(t) and y(t) separately using the subplot command. These should be plotted versus the time vector. Label the axes and title each graph appropriately.
  4. Look at the plots. Can you explain what is happening to the spike train?

High-pass filtering

An ideal high-pass filter eliminates low frequency components entirely, as in: H H i d e a l ( ω ) = { 0 | ω | < B 1 | ω | B } MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVCI8FfYJH8YrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfeaY=biLkVcLq=JHqpepeea0=as0Fb9pgeaYRXxe9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaadIeadaqhaaWcbaGaamisaaqaaiaadMgacaWGKbGaamyzaiaadggacaWGSbaaaOGaaiikaiabeM8a3jaacMcacqGH9aqpdaGadaqaauaabeqaciaaaeaacaaIWaaabaWaaqWaaeaacqaHjpWDaiaawEa7caGLiWoacqGH8aapcaWGcbaabaGaaGymaaqaamaaemaabaGaeqyYdChacaGLhWUaayjcSdGaeyyzImRaamOqaaaaaiaawUhacaGL9baaaaa@5263@ A real high-pass filter typically has low but non-zero values for | H L ( ω ) | MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVCI8FfYJH8YrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfeaY=biLkVcLq=JHqpepeea0=as0Fb9pgeaYRXxe9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaamaaemaabaGaamisamaaBaaaleaacaWGmbaabeaakiaacIcacqaHjpWDcaGGPaaacaGLhWUaayjcSdaaaa@3DFE@ at low frequencies, and a gradual (rather than an immediate) rise in magnitude as frequency increases. The simplest (and least effective) high-pass filter is given by (e.g. using an RC circuit): H H ( ω ) = 1 H L ( ω ) = 1 α α + j ω , α = cutoff frequency . MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLnhiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr4rNCHbGeaGqiVCI8FfYJH8YrFfeuY=Hhbbf9v8qqaqFr0xc9pk0xbba9q8WqFfeaY=biLkVcLq=JHqpepeea0=as0Fb9pgeaYRXxe9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaadaqaaqaaaOqaaiaadIeadaWgaaWcbaGaamisaaqabaGccaGGOaGaeqyYdCNaaiykaiabg2da9iaaigdacqGHsislcaWGibWaaSbaaSqaaiaadYeaaeqaaOGaaiikaiabeM8a3jaacMcacqGH9aqpcaaIXaGaeyOeI0YaaSaaaeaacqaHXoqyaeaacqaHXoqycqGHRaWkcaWGQbGaeqyYdChaaiaacYcacaqGGaGaeqySdeMaeyypa0Jaae4yaiaabwhacaqG0bGaae4BaiaabAgacaqGMbGaaeiiaiaabAgacaqGYbGaaeyzaiaabghacaqG1bGaaeyzaiaab6gacaqGJbGaaeyEaiaab6caaaa@5F6C@ This filter can be implemented in the same way as the low pass filter above.

High-pass filtering with sound

The high-pass filter can be implemented in MATLAB much the same way as the low-pass filter. Perform high-pass filtering with the filter defined above on the sound castanets44m.wav. Start with a = 2000*2*pi , but also try different values.

Play the original and the high-passed version of the sound. The filtered signal may be to be scaled so that both have the same range on the Y-axis. Plot their frequency responses as well.

Sound separation

Sound filtering

  • Kick'n Retro 235 Inc. recorded a session of a trumpet and drum kit together for their new release. The boss doesn't like the bass drum in the background and wants it out. Unfortunately, there was a malfunction in the mixing board and instead of having two separate tracks for the drums and the trumpet, the sounds mixed together in one track. In order to get this release out on time you will have to use some filtering to eliminate the bass drum from the sound. There is not enough time to bring the drummer and trumpet player back in the studio to rerecord the track.
  • Click here to download the mixed.wav sound ( Fs = 8000 Hz). The mixed sound is created from bassdrum.wav, hatclosed.wav, and shake.mat.
  • Try to do something easy but approximate first, and then, if you have more time, see how clean you can get the sound. You may find it helpful to look at the Fourier domain representation of the sounds, but you may not use the individual sounds in your solution.
  • Now try to eliminate the trumpet sound, leaving only the drums left in the sound.
  • Hint: use high-pass and low-pass filtering.
  • Another hint: If you want a more powerful filter, you can try using multiple a/(a+jw) terms in series. Each extra term raises the order of the filter by one and higher order filters have a faster drop-off outside of their passing region.

Bonus problem: sound filtering

  • Imagine you recorded a trumpet and rainstick together, so that you have the signal, mixedsig = shake + 10*rainstick .
  • It turns out the producer thinks the rainstick is too new-age and wants it out of the recording. Pretend you do not have the original signals shake or rainstick. Can you take the signal mixedsig and process it to get (approximately) only the trumpet sound (shake) out? Try to do something easy but approximate first, and then if you have more time, see how good a reproduction of shake you can get. You may find it helpful to look at Fourier domain of the sounds, but you may not use rainstick.mat or shake.mat in your solution.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
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Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
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Abigail
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Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Source:  OpenStax, Continuous time linear systems laboratory (ee 235). OpenStax CNX. Sep 28, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10374/1.8
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