# 8.1 Applications  (Page 2/3)

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## Interesting fact

Ultrasound generator/speaker systems are sold with claims that they frighten away rodents and insects, but there is no scientific evidence that the devices work; controlled tests have shown that rodents quickly learn that the speakers are harmless.

In echo-sounding the reflections from ultrasound pulses that are bounced off objects (for example the bottom of the sea, fish etc.) are picked up. The reflections are timed and since their speed is known, the distance to the object can be found. This information can be built into a picture of the object that reflects the ultrasound pulses.

## Sonar

Ships on the ocean make use of the reflecting properties of sound waves to determine the depth of the ocean. A sound wave is transmitted and bounces off the seabed. Because the speed of sound is known and the time lapse between sending and receiving the sound can be measured, the distance from the ship to the bottom of the ocean can be determined, This is called sonar, which stands from So und N avigation A nd R anging.

## Echolocation

Animals like dolphins and bats make use of sounds waves to find their way. Just like ships on the ocean, bats use sonar to navigate. Ultrasound waves that are sent out are reflected off the objects around the animal. Bats, or dolphins, then use the reflected sounds to form a “picture” of their surroundings. This is called echolocation.

A ship sends a signal to the bottom of the ocean to determine the depth of the ocean. The speed of sound in sea water is $1450\phantom{\rule{2pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}.{\mathrm{s}}^{-1}$ . If the signal is received 1,5 seconds later, how deep is the ocean at that point?

1. $\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill s& =& 1450\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}.{\mathrm{s}}^{-1}\hfill \\ \hfill t& =& 1,5\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{s}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{there}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{and}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{back}\hfill \\ \hfill \therefore t& =& 0,75\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{s}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{one}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{way}\hfill \\ \hfill D& =& ?\hfill \end{array}$
2. $\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill \mathrm{Distance}& =& \mathrm{speed}×\mathrm{time}\hfill \\ \hfill D& =& s×t\hfill \\ & =& 1450\phantom{\rule{2pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}.{\mathrm{s}}^{-1}×0,75s\hfill \\ & =& 1087,5\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}\hfill \end{array}$

## Intensity of sound (not included in caps - advanced)

This section is more advanced than required and is best revisited for interest only when you are comfortable with concepts like power and logarithms.

Intensity is one indicator of amplitude. Intensity is the energy transmitted over a unit of area each second.

## Intensity

Intensity is defined as:

$\mathrm{Intensity}=\frac{\mathrm{energy}}{\mathrm{time}×\mathrm{area}}=\frac{\mathrm{power}}{\mathrm{area}}$

By the definition of intensity, we can see that the units of intensity are

$\frac{\mathrm{Joules}}{\mathrm{s}·{\mathrm{m}}^{2}}=\frac{\mathrm{Watts}}{{\mathrm{m}}^{2}}$

The unit of intensity is the decibel (symbol: dB). This reduces to an SI equivalent of $\mathrm{W}·{\mathrm{m}}^{-2}$ .

The average threshold of hearing is ${10}^{-12}\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{W}·{\mathrm{m}}^{-2}$ . Below this intensity, the sound is too soft for the ear to hear. The threshold of pain is $1.0\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{W}·{\mathrm{m}}^{-2}$ . Above this intensity a sound is so loud it becomes uncomfortable for the ear.

Notice that there is a factor of ${10}^{12}$ between the thresholds of hearing and pain. This is one reason we define the decibel (dB) scale.

In this way we can compress the whole hearing intensity scale into a range from 0 dB to 120 dB.

 Source Intensity (dB) Times greater than hearing threshold Rocket Launch 180 ${10}^{18}$ Jet Plane 140 ${10}^{14}$ Threshold of Pain 120 ${10}^{12}$ Rock Band 110 ${10}^{11}$ Subway Train 90 ${10}^{9}$ Factory 80 ${10}^{8}$ City Traffic 70 ${10}^{7}$ Normal Conversation 60 ${10}^{6}$ Library 40 ${10}^{4}$ Whisper 20 ${10}^{2}$ Threshold of hearing 0 0

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire streached by a load of relative density 's'are n¹ and n² when the load is in air and completly immersed in water respectively then the lation n²/na is
Properties of longitudinal waves