# 2.2 Graphing qualitative variables  (Page 2/2)

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## Bar charts

Bar charts can also be used to represent frequencies ofdifferent categories. A bar chart of the iMac purchases is shown in . Frequencies are shown on the Y axis and the type of computer previously owned is shown on theX axis. Typically the Y-axis shows the number of observations rather than the percentage of observations in each category asis typical in pie charts.

## Comparing distributions

Often we need to compare the results of different surveys,or of different conditions within the same overall survey. In this case, we are comparing the distributions of responses between the surveys or conditions. Bar charts are often excellent forillustrating differences between two distributions. shows the number of people playing card games at the Yahoo website on a Sunday and on a Wednesday on a day in the Spring of 2001. We see that there were moreplayers overall on Wednesday compared to Sunday. The number of people playing Pinochle was nonetheless the same on thesetwo days. In contrast, there were about twice as many people playing hearts on Wednesday as on Sunday. Facts like theseemerge clearly from a well-designed bar chart.

The bars in are oriented horizontally rather than vertically. The horizontal format is useful whenyou have many categories because there is more room for the category labels. Such horizontal bar charts may be contrasted with vertical bar charts like the one in . We'll have more to say about bar charts when we consider numerical quantities later in this chapter. (See Bar Charts .)

## Some graphical mistakes to avoid

Don't get fancy! People sometimes add features to graphs that don't help to convey their information. For example,3-dimensional bar charts like the one shown in are usually not as effective as their two-dimensional counterparts.

Here is another way that fanciness can lead to trouble. Instead of plain bars, it is tempting to substitutemeaningful images. For example, presents the iMac data using pictures of computers. The heights of thepictures accurately represent the number of buyers, yet is misleading because the viewer's attention will be captured by areas. This can exaggerate the sizedifferences between the groups. In terms of percentages, the ratio of previous Macintosh owners to previous Windows ownersis about 6 to 1. But the ratio of the two areas in is about 35 to 1. A biased person wishing to hide the fact that many Windows owners purchased iMacs wouldbe tempted to use instead of ! Edward Tufte coined the term lie factor to refer to the ratio of the size of the effect shown in a graph to the size of the effect shown in thedata. He suggests that lie factors greater than 1.05 or less than 0.95 produce unacceptable distortion. Another distortion in bar charts results from setting the baseline to a value other than zero. The baseline is thebottom of the Y-axis, representing the least number of cases that could have occurred in a category. Normally, this numbershould be zero. shows the iMac data with a baseline of 50. Once again, the difference in areas suggestsa different story than the true differences in percentages. The number of Windows-switchers seems minusculecompared to its true value of 12%. Finally, we note that it is a serious mistake to use a line graph when the X-axis contains merely qualitative variables. Aline graph is essentially a bar graph with the tops of the bars represented by points joined by lines (the rest of the bar issuppressed). inappropriately shows a line graph of the card game data from Yahoo. The drawback to is that it gives the false impression that the games are naturally ordered in a numerical way.

## Summary

Pie charts and bar charts can both be effective methods of portraying qualitative data. Bar charts are better when thereare more than just a few categories and for comparing two or more distributions. Be careful to avoid creating misleadinggraphs.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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