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Some further questions to ponder:

Income distribution issues involve profound philosophical questions, as well as vital economic and political issues.

The philosophical issues were well stated in late 20th century exchanges between two extraordinary Harvard professors of philosophy: John Rawls and Robert Nozick .John Rawls’ publication of A Theory of Justice (1971), was hailed at the time as “the most important work in moral philosophy since the end of World War II,” and is now regarded as “one of the primary texts in political philosophy.” See also Robert Nozick (1974), Anarchy, State&Utopia and Libertarianism , New York, NY: Basic Books. [MG FIND SOURCE). Philosopher Rawls favored more income redistribution, but within limits. These limits are imposed by effects of redistribution on economic incentives for the better off. Philosopher Nozick favored less income redistribution because of potential adverse economic effects of policies to reduce inequality.

Economists, at least in the 21st century, are rarely philosophers also. In this book, our concern is over what can economists , qua economists say about inequality? Economists as economists have little to offer regarding definitions of what is or is not an ideal income distribution. Economists can however, help shed light upon those factors that might be the causes or consequences of a given income distribution, and how income inequality might be remedied.

Still, decisions about income redistribution must emerge out of a political process. An economist can shed light on interesting and even complicated issues in income distribution. He or she can show, for example, that such rewards as rents and windfalls that everywhere tend to accrue to the higher end of the income distribution can be more heavily taxed without adverse economic effects (see Chapter 9 on Rent-Seeking).

So, in economies such as the U.S., higher income taxes that gather some part of rents and windfalls accruing to individuals have little or no adverse effects on incentives to save, work or invest. We also cover economic rents later when we discuss taxation (See Chapter_____).

Globalization, technological change and the evolution of labor’s share in national income

A long tradition in economics has been the assumption that the share of national income received by labor was almost constant over time. Indeed this constancy was treated as a stylized “fact” from the late forties through the fifties and even up until very recent years. However, this stylized fact no longer holds.

By 2014, it had become clear that an important indicator of increasing or decreasing income equality over time in any nation is the trend in the percentage share of labor wage and salary income (hereafter called labor’s share) in total national income. Historically the distribution of labor income has been much more equal than the distribution of capital income. Capital income tends strongly to accrue to those in higher income brackets. Therefore, a decline in labor’s share in national income over time will itself result in increasing inequality in the overall distribution of income (labor plus capital income). For many large, rich nations, and even a few emerging nations including China and Mexico, a clear pattern in labor’s share has emerged over the past quarter century: the share of labor in national income has declined. In the U.S. and a few European nations, as well as China, the decline in labor’s share has been especially notable and puzzling (see Figure 4-4). A major reason for the decline in labor’s share in the U.S. and several Western nations has been the steady decline in manufacturing employment as a share of total employment: the average decline in the U.S., Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the U.K. has been in the order of 14%. Martin Neal Baily&Barry P. Bosworth, (2014, Winter), “U.S. Manufacturing: Understanding Its Past and Its Potential Future”, Journal of Economic Perspectives , 28 (1): 3-26.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Economic development for the 21st century. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11747/1.12
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