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Irrotational vector fields

The vector field a is irrotational if its curl vanishes everywhere. By Stokes' theorem the circulation around any closed curve also vanishes. Also, an irrotational vector field can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar.

× a = 0 C a t d s = 0 a = ϕ a an irrotational field

The velocity field of motions where the viscous effects are insignificant compared to inertial effects and the flow is initially irrotational can be approximated as an irrotational velocity field.

Solenoidal vector fields

A solenoidal vector field is defined as one in which the divergence vanishes. This implies that the flux across a closed surface must also vanish. A vector identity states that the divergence of the curl of a vector is zero. Thus a continuously differentiable solenoidal vector field has the following three equivalent characteristics.

a = 0 S a n d S = 0 a = × A a a solenoidal field

The velocity field of motions where the effects of compressibility are insignificant can be approximated as a solenoidal vector field. The surface integral of velocity vanishing over any closed surface means that the net volumetric flow across closed surfaces is zero. Incompressible flow fields can be expressed as the curl of a vector potential. Two-dimensional, incompressible flows have only one nonzero component of the vector potential and this is identified as the stream function.

Helmholtz' representation

We found that an irrotational vector is the gradient of a scalar potential and a solenoidal vector is the curl of a vector potential. Here we show that any vector field with sufficient continuity is divisible into irrotational and solenoidal parts, and so is expressible in terms of a scalar and a vector potential. The fundamental problem in the analysis of a vector field is the determination of these potentials and their expression in terms of the essential characteristics of the vector, namely divergence, curl, discontinuities, and boundary values. For when the potentials are known the vector itself can be determined by differentiation. The following analysis is taken from H. B. Phillips, Vector Analysis , John Wiley&Sons, 1933. The following nomenclature will differ somewhat in that the vector is expressed as the negative of the gradient of a scalar. Also, the vector field of interest will be denoted as m a t h b f F . Bold face capital letters will also be used for other vector quantities. Also the equations have the 4 π factor of electromagnetism in mks units rather than the factors ε o and ε o c 2 of the SI units.

Let V be a region of space where the vector field F has piecewise continuous second derivatives, S 1 be surfaces of discontinuity of F , and S be the bounding surface of V . The Helmholtz's theorem states that F can be expressed in terms of the potentials.

F = - ϕ + × A where ϕ ( x P ) = V ρ d V r + S 1 σ d S r - 1 4 π S n F d S r A ( x P ) = V I d V r + S 1 J d S r - 1 4 π S n × F d S r F = - 2 ϕ = 4 π ρ × F = × × A = 4 π I n Δ F = 4 π σ n × Δ F = 4 π J r = x P - x Q where x Q is coordinate of integrand

The vectors I and J are not arbitrary. They are subject to the equation of continuity A = 0 . The effect of this condition is to make I and J behave like space and surface currents of something which is nowhere created or destroyed. In the electromagnetic field they usually represent currents of electricity. In hydrodynamic fields they represent vorticity. If A is everywhere solenoidal, the following three equations must then be everywhere satisfied.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, Transport phenomena. OpenStax CNX. May 24, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11205/1.1
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