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Soil

You might have read The Grapes of Wrath in English class at some point in time. Steinbeck’s tale of the Joads, driven out of their home by the Dust Bowl, is still playing out today. In China, as in Depression-era Oklahoma, over-tilling soil in an attempt to expand agriculture has resulted in the disappearance of large patches of topsoil.

Soil erosion and desertification are just two of the many forms of soil pollution. In addition, all the chemicals and pollutants that harm our water supplies can also leach into soil with similar effects. Brown zones where nothing can grow are common results of soil pollution. One demand the population boom makes on the planet is a requirement for more food to be produced. The so-called “Green Revolution” in the 1960s saw chemists and world aid organizations working together to bring modern farming methods, complete with pesticides, to developing countries. The immediate result was positive: food yields went up and burgeoning populations were fed. But as time has gone on, these areas have fallen into even more difficult straits as the damage done by modern methods leave traditional farmers with less than they had to start.

Dredging certain beaches in an attempt to save valuable beachfront property from coastal erosion has resulted in greater storm impact on shorelines, and damage to beach ecosystems (Turneffe Atoll Trust 2008). These dredging projects have damaged reefs, sea grass beds, and shorelines and can kill off large swaths of marine life. Ultimately, this damage threatens local fisheries, tourism, and other parts of the local economy.

Garbage

A pile of garbage and grasses is shown here.
Where should garbage go when you’ve run out of room? This is a question that is increasingly pressing the planet. (Photo courtesy of Kevin Krejci/flickr)

Where is your last cell phone? What about the one before that? Or the huge old television set your family had before flat screens became popular? For most of us, the answer is a sheepish shrug. We don’t pay attention to the demise of old items, and since electronics drop in price and increase in innovation at an incredible clip, we have been trained by their manufacturers to upgrade frequently.

Garbage creation and control are major issues for most core and industrializing nations, and it is quickly becoming one of the most critical environmental issues faced in the United States. People in the United States buy products, use them, and then throw them away. Did you dispose of your old electronics according to government safety guidelines? Chances are good you didn’t even know there are guidelines. Multiply your electronics times a few million, take into account the numerous toxic chemicals they contain, and then imagine either burying those chemicals in the ground or lighting them on fire.

Those are the two primary means of waste disposal in the United States: landfill and incineration. When it comes to getting rid of dangerous toxins, neither is a good choice. Styrofoam and plastics that many of us use every day do not dissolve in a natural way. Burn them, and they release carcinogens into the air. Their improper incineration (intentional or not) adds to air pollution and increases smog. Dump them in landfills, and they do not decompose. As landfill sites fill up, we risk an increase in groundwater contamination.

Questions & Answers

what is social mobility
Hacking Reply
how in the he day-to-day world is religion ruling socialogy
Mugimba Reply
By setting it's own standard of acceptable norms and behaviours, using the Holy books etc
Chimba
what are the social institutions that maintain social control in the society
Uzair Reply
what is socialization
Uzair
explain the characteristics of planned social change
Hellen Reply
important of culture
Owolabi
what is social research
Rafaqat Reply
what is soft science
Rafaqat
what is fertility
gleyn Reply
what is social interaction
Zakir Reply
the 2 pespetives
Bendu
relationship between two or more individuals through social media, peer group, groups etc
Ann
A child is born a tabularrasa
Judith Reply
a child is born a tabularrasa.discuss the assetion
Judith
discuss the importance of modernization
Minsa Reply
what are the importance
Anesu
being happy and healthy
Jo
what is human capital theory
Luka Reply
human capital
hassan
human capital is the stock of knowledge intelligence and creativity embodies in the ability to perform labor in the production of economy value
hassan
what are the fuctions of socialization
Usman
what is the relationship between sociology and other disciplines
blunted Reply
why is Emile durkheim refers to as the founding father of academic sociology
Ojewande Reply
because he's the first founder of sociology 1789-1857
Alpha
what type of study could put human participants at risk? why?
ken Reply
u r studying or some how relate to social sector
shazab
drugs
Anesu
because in most cases the doing the study uses participant observation that is he or she will be involved in the drug act in order for him or her to get propriate results, data or information about the study of drugs.
Anesu
As my Opinions secondary type of Education could put risk like an Social media google and other resources which are not athentic they should very risky and as it is here we saw in the studies of drugs they totaly promote drugs for there profits I think SE could put human participants at risk.
Azhar
what is culture shock?
Blessing Reply
the total way of life
Fazal
some rituals are not common in All culture and when someone observes a new thing about culture if it is shocking thing then it is called Culture shock
usman
personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
Khadija
ia a sense of anxiety, depression, or confusion that result from being cut off from your familiar culture.
Asim
I agree with Usman Ali
Fatty
yes
Language
Culture shock is an experience a person may have when one moves to a cultural environment which is different from one's own
Language
I Agreed With You Usman Ali
Muhammad
thank you
usman
it is also the personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life due to immigration or a visit to a new country, 
Language
It's common to experience culture shock when some one transplanted into a different culture.
Hamid
greetings to all
Abubakar
eathyreading.website
The Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology 2e. OpenStax CNX. Jan 20, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11762/1.6
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