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Soil plays an important role in land ecosystems. In order for a community of producers and consumers to become established on land, soil must be present. Furthermore, soil quality is often a limiting factor for population growth in ecosystems....

Soils

Introduction

Soil plays an important role in land ecosystems. In order for a community of producers and consumers to become established on land, soil must be present. Furthermore, soil quality is often a limiting factor for population growth in ecosystems. Soil is a complex mixture of inorganic materials, organic materials, microorganisms, water and air. Its formation begins with the weathering of bedrock or the transport of sediments from another area. These small grains of rock accumulate on the surface of the earth. There they are mixed with organic matter called humus , which results from the decomposition of the waste and dead tissue of organisms. Infiltrating rainwater and air also contribute to the mixture and become trapped in pore spaces. This formation process is very slow (hundreds to thousands of years), and thus soil loss or degradation can be very detrimental to a community.

Soil profile

Mature soils are layered. These layers are known as soil horizons , and each has a distinct texture and composition. A typical soil has a soil profile consisting of four horizons, which are designated: O, A, B and C. The O horizon is the top layer at the earth's surface. It consists of surface litter, such as fallen leaves (duff), sticks and other plant material, animal waste and dead organisms. A distinct O horizon may not exist in all soil environments (e.g., desert soil). Below the O horizon is the A horizon , which is also known as topsoil . This layer contains organic humus, which usually gives it a distinctive dark color. The B horizon , or sub-soil is the next layer down from the surface. It consists mostly of inorganic rock materials such as sand, silt and clay. The C horizon sits atop bedrock and therefore is made up of weathered rock fragments. The bedrock is the source of the parent inorganic materials found in the soil.

The O horizon protects the underlying topsoil from erosion and moisture loss by evaporation. The O and A horizons in typical mature soils have an abundance of microorganisms (e.g. fungi, bacteria), earthworms and insects. These organisms decompose the organic material from dead organisms and animal waste into inorganic nutrients useable by plants. The organic humus in the A horizon aids in holding water and nutrients, making it the most fertile layer. Therefore, plants with shallow roots are anchored in the A horizon. Water seeping through the upper layers may dissolve water-soluble minerals and transport them to lower layers in a process called leaching . Very fine clay particles can also be transported by seeping water and accumulate in the subsoil layer. The accumulation of clay particles and leached minerals can lead to compaction of the B horizon. This compaction can limit the flow of water through the layer and cause the soil above to become waterlogged.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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