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People occasionally have programs whose memory size requirements are so great that the data can’t fit in memory all at once. At any time, some of the data has to reside outside of main memory on secondary (usually disk) storage. These out-of- core solutions fall into two categories:

  • Software-managed, out-of-core solutions
  • Virtual memory–managed, out-of-core solutions

With a software-managed approach, the programmer has recognized that the problem is too big and has modified the source code to move sections of the data out to disk for retrieval at a later time. The other method depends on the computer’s memory system handling the secondary storage requirements on its own, some- times at a great cost in runtime.

Software-managed, out-of-core solutions

Most codes with software-managed, out-of-core solutions have adjustments; you can tell the program how much memory it has to work with, and it takes care of the rest. It is important to make sure the adjustment is set correctly. Code that was tuned for a machine with limited memory could have been ported to another without taking into account the storage available. Perhaps the whole problem will fit easily.

If we are writing an out-of-core solution, the trick is to group memory references together so that they are localized. This usually occurs naturally as a side effect of partitioning, say, a matrix factorization into groups of columns. Blocking references the way we did in the previous section also corrals memory references together so you can treat them as memory “pages.” Knowing when to ship them off to disk entails being closely involved with what the program is doing.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Source:  OpenStax, High performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11136/1.5
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