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In addition to the bank stall hazard, single-word references made directly to a multibanked memory system carry a greater latency than those of (successfully) cached memory accesses. This is because references are going out to memory that is slower than cache, and there may be additional address translation steps as well. However, banked memory references are pipelined. As long as references are started well enough in advance, several pipelined, multibanked references can be in flight at one time, giving you good throughput.

The CDC-205 system performed vector operations in a memory-to-memory fashion using a set of explicit memory pipelines. This system had superior performance for very long unit-stride vector computations. A single instruction could perform 65,000 computations using three memory pipes.

Software managed caches

Here’s an interesting thought: if a vector processor can plan far enough in advance to start a memory pipe, why can’t a RISC processor start a cache-fill before it really needs the data in those same situations? In a way, this is priming the cache to hide the latency of the cache-fill. If this could be done far enough in advance, it would appear that all memory references would operate at the speed of the cache.

This concept is called prefetching and it is supported using a special prefetch instruction available on many RISC processors. A prefetch instruction operates just like a standard load instruction, except that the processor doesn’t wait for the cache to fill before the instruction completes. The idea is to prefetch far enough ahead of the computation to have the data ready in cache by the time the actual computation occurs. The following is an example of how this might be used:


DO I=1,1000000,8 PREFETCH(ARR(I+8))DO J=0,7 SUM=SUM+ARR(I+J)END DO END DO

This is not the actual FORTRAN. Prefetching is usually done in the assembly code generated by the compiler when it detects that you are stepping through the array using a fixed stride. The compiler typically estimate how far ahead you should be prefetching. In the above example, if the cache-fills were particularly slow, the value 8 in I+8 could be changed to 16 or 32 while the other values changed accordingly.

In a processor that could only issue one instruction per cycle, there might be no payback to a prefetch instruction; it would take up valuable time in the instruction stream in exchange for an uncertain benefit. On a superscalar processor, however, a cache hint could be mixed in with the rest of the instruction stream and issued alongside other, real instructions. If it saved your program from suffering extra cache misses, it would be worth having.

Post-risc effects on memory references

Memory operations typically access the memory during the execute phase of the pipeline on a RISC processor. On the post-RISC processor, things are no different than on a RISC processor except that many loads can be half finished at any given moment. On some current processors, up to 28 memory operations may be active with 10 waiting for off-chip memory to arrive. This is an excellent way to compensate for slow memory latency compared to the CPU speed. Consider the following loop:

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, High performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Aug 25, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11136/1.5
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