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Social sciences


Grade 8


Module 17

Topographic maps and photographs

The big difference between a photograph and a map is that a map represents a vertical “plan” of a region, while a photograph presents a realistic image.

The ordinary photographs with which we are acquainted are taken with a camera that is held in the horizontal position.

Objects that are close to the camera look large and those that are further away seem smaller. Objects in the foreground also obscure information regarding what is behind them. This hidden area is known as the hidden ground. What happens behind the behind the double-storey building is unknown to us.

These photographs cannot be used for information when we draw maps. A special kind of aerial photograph is used for the drawing of maps. Such photographs are taken vertically, i.e. by means of a camera that is attached to a special aeroplane in such a way that it points down towards the earth.

Study a vertical aerial photograph of Pietermaritzburg. The 1:50 000 map and the aerial photograph show the same area. You will therefore be able to identify the objects that are the same on the photograph and the map.

Figure 1

Figure 2


A technical college will be found on the map at 29º35’30”S; 30º23’43”E.On the aerial photo the position of the technical college is marked S .

By comparing the features of the card with those of the aerial photograph, may other characteristics will be recognisable.


Use a topographic map and aerial photo of Pietermaritzburg and answer the following questions by circling the letter of the correct answer.

1. The point F on the aerial photo is the

a) national road

b) dirt road

c) railway


Learning Outcomes(LOs)
LO 1
Geographical EnquiryThe learner will be able to use enquiry skills to investigate geographical and environmental concepts and processes.
Assessment Standards(ASs)
We know this when the learner:
  • identifies and selects a variety of
geographical and environmental sourcesthat are relevant to the research;
  • interprets information from maps and
atlases, as well as graphic and statisticalsources;
  • calculates distance from maps and
compares it to real distance;
  • identifies physical features and features
created by people and aerial photographsand maps.



  1. Higher than the surrounding area.
  1. East.
  1. Permanent.
  1. Dam.
  1. River.
  1. Hospital.
  1. Sports grounds.

2. If the residential area of Willowtown were to develop, it will develop to the

a) south

b) east

c) west

3. The most important freeway on this map is the

a) N6

b) N3

c) N2

4. The phenomenon marked E on the aerial photo is

a) water tower

b) athletic field

c) cricket field

5. The object marked with a 2 is a

a) hiking trail

b) bridge

c) river

6. The object marked with a C is a

a) factory

b) police station

c) residential home

7. The object marked with a I is a

a) water tower

b) golf course

c) silo

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11036/1.1
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