<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Social sciences


Grade 8

Land and power

Module 4

The industrial revolution

Source a

In 1733, Mr. John Kay of Britain improved the loom used for weaving to such an extent that the demand for spinning thread increased drastically. From the business world it is clear that the greater the demand for a specific product (e.g. spinning thread), the better the price that can be obtained by the manufacturer (e.g. the spinner) for his product.

James Hargreaves was a woodworker and spinner from Lancashire in Britain. One day, his daughter, Jenny, knocked over the spinning wheel in the overcrowded house in which he, his wife and their seven children operated their cottage industry.

James realised that more spindles could be mounted on the axle and that more threads could therefore be spun at the same time. Hargreaves names his new invention the Spinning Jenny.

One Spinning Jenny, which had eight spindles, could do the work of eight people at the same time. Spinners who feared job

lessness broke into Hargreaves’s house and destroyed the Spin

ning Jenny. Hargreaves moved to Nottingham and opened a factory with larger and better spinning machines. His success with the Spinning Jenny motivated other inventors to also begin experimentation. In this way, a number of new and improved machines were developed.

The next step was the development of machines that could be operated with water power and steam power.

Written exercise:

  • Complete the following sentences on Source A.

The development of the Spinning Jenny was caused by an accident, namely that


The consequence of the accident was that Hargreaves got the bright idea to


The cause / reason for the development of the improved spinning wheel was________________________________________________________/2/

The consequence / result of the improved spinning wheel was__________________/2/


[LO 2.2]

Source b

The use of machines increased production, necessitating good roads for fast transport from the farm (e.g. fresh vegetables or wheat for bread) or factory (e.g. clothes) to the market.

John Loudon McAdam is still respected as a master road builder today. It is thanks to him that a network of excellent roads was built in Scotland and Britain.

Activity: chronology

All the following facts on McAdam are correct, but they are not in the correct sequence. Read through the points and rearrange the facts so that they follow on one another logically.

1. He returned to Scotland at the age of 27.

2. When John was 14, his father died and he went to live with his uncle in New York.

3. McAdam was born in Scotland in 1756.

4. When John was a child, he enjoyed making roads for his toy carriages.

5. Even after his death, his techniques for building roads remained available in the three books that he wrote on the topic.

6. In New York, McAdam eventually became a wealthy merchant.

7. Back in Scotland, McAdam began to experiment with road building on his own estate in Ayrshire.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, History grade 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11044/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'History grade 8' conversation and receive update notifications?