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Social sciences


Grade 9

Sustainable utilisation of resources

Module 6

The principles of agenda 21

Activity 1:

To investigate the importance of resources, their sustainable use and the responsibility that all of us have in this regard

[lo 1.3]

Read the following passages on Agenda 21 and then answer the questions.


Agenda 21 is a worldwide action plan for development that is socially, economically and environmentally sustainable. The term sustainable means that development can be sustained and continued, without exhausting the Earth’s natural resources. This plan was accepted at the United Nations conference on the Environment and Development that took place in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Try to find this city on a world map and remember in which country and on which continent it is. The aim of Agenda 21 is to develop principles and programmes for a better balance between development and the Earth’s natural resources . All development depends on this. The conference proposed that the principles of Agenda 21 should be implemented throughout the world on the local level. This practical implementation programme is known as Local Agenda 21 .

The Local Agenda 21- Mandate

By 1996, most local authorities in every country, should have completed a consultative process with their people, and should have reached consensus regarding the Local Agenda 21 .

Local Agenda 21 in South Africa

First try to learn what we mean by the term ‘local’. As part of our own reconstruction and development programme, the three largest cities in South Africa (Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban) began their own Local Agenda 21 programme that was in agreement with the Local Agenda 21 mandate in 1994/95. These early programmes started a series of activities throughout the country, so that cities such as Kimberley, Port Elizabeth, East London and Pietermaritzburg also started their own Local Agenda 21 programmes. At provincial level, provinces such as KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo launched campaigns to ensure that local authorities became involved with Local Agenda 21 plans on a large scale. In 1998 the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism launched a National Local Agenda 21 to support, co-ordinate and link activities in an extensive network throughout the country.

Principles of Local Agenda 21 in South Africa

People-centred development. (Focus on training and empowerment of people, such as ……..)

Provision of basic needs (provision of facilities and services most needed by people, such as ……….)

Integrated planning and development instead of a sector-based approach. (The whole area and its people are developed together, not just certain aspects, e.g. ……….)

Sustainable development. The environment and resources are not negatively affected by prolonged development.

Local Agenda 21 in Durban

Durban’s Local Agenda 21 (LA21) programme was launched with the appointment of the city’s first Environmental Manager in 1994. In 1995 a special section was created for this purpose.

After extensive support was obtained from key interest groups – inclusive of the local authorities, the public sector and new development forums – the Durban Town Council of the time accepted the mandate for the implementation of the Local Agenda 21 as their responsibility in August 1994. This decision was later ratified (in 1996) by the relevant councils newly-constituted Durban Metropolitan area.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11057/1.1
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