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Social sciences

Geography

Grade 9

Social and environmental conflict in south africa

Module 10

Social consequences of environmental shortages

Environmental shortages have certain effects on the community. They are called ‘social implications’, of which we name only four.

  • A decrease in agricultural production
  • A downward trend in the economy
  • Migration of the population
  • The deteriorisation of institutions (organisations)

Explain in your own words why and how the above-mentioned consequences come about, and cite examples from your own area.

1. Decrease in agricultural production

In the homelands the agricultural potential has decreased due to the increase in population density, water shortages and soil-erosion. In the 1940’s Bophuthatswana farmers produced 110 kg maize per person. Today it has dropped to 50 kg per person.

This resulted in diseases caused by malnutrition, such as kwashiorkor in children and tuberculoses in adults. As the available resources for agriculture and forests decrease, many people are forced to abandon agriculture. They have no choice but to move to towns and cities to accept low-paid jobs.

Marginalised (disadvantaged) rural and urban black people become the victims of growing shortages and inadequate alternative (other) job opportunities. This results in chronic poverty (what is the meaning of “chronic” here?).

2. Downward trends in the economy

A drop in food production has a negative effect on the economy. Agriculture plays a key role in earning foreign income, called valuta. This means that the export of agricultural products ensures a steady flow of money to South Africa from foreign countries. It helps to stimulate the country’s economy.

If, however, production drops as a result of environmental factors, there is not enough food for export. It puts a strain on the economy and leads to entrenchments and unemployment in sectors closely linked to agriculture. Name some of these sectors in your and other areas that suffer when production drops.

3. Migration (movement of the population)

Over the past few years there was an increase in the movement of inhabitants from rural to urban areas. In the 1990’s the tempo at which urbanisation took place, was estimated at 750 000 per year. These people mostly end up in informal settlements. Not all of them manage to find a job in the city.

These migrants experience the same ecological disadvantages in the cities as they had to contend with in rural areas. The concentration of a large number of people in an area with limited resources, leads to the control of resources by certain groups.

Local power structures are formed where certain leaders obtain power by regulating the basic resources such as land and the allocation of houses and services. This can cause tension and malpractices.

Migration also leads to an increase in the number of informal settlements. At present the inhabitants of these settlements represent more than 30% of the total urban population. Informal settlements are found in most South African cities. Near Cape Town, for example, many of these houses consisting of any kind of waste material, from corrugated iron and planks to plastic sheets, are erected along the freeways. What are these inhabitants’ biggest problems? What possible solutions can you think of?

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11057/1.1
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