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Social sciences


Grade 9

Social and environmental conflict in south africa

Module 10

Social consequences of environmental shortages

Environmental shortages have certain effects on the community. They are called ‘social implications’, of which we name only four.

  • A decrease in agricultural production
  • A downward trend in the economy
  • Migration of the population
  • The deteriorisation of institutions (organisations)

Explain in your own words why and how the above-mentioned consequences come about, and cite examples from your own area.

1. Decrease in agricultural production

In the homelands the agricultural potential has decreased due to the increase in population density, water shortages and soil-erosion. In the 1940’s Bophuthatswana farmers produced 110 kg maize per person. Today it has dropped to 50 kg per person.

This resulted in diseases caused by malnutrition, such as kwashiorkor in children and tuberculoses in adults. As the available resources for agriculture and forests decrease, many people are forced to abandon agriculture. They have no choice but to move to towns and cities to accept low-paid jobs.

Marginalised (disadvantaged) rural and urban black people become the victims of growing shortages and inadequate alternative (other) job opportunities. This results in chronic poverty (what is the meaning of “chronic” here?).

2. Downward trends in the economy

A drop in food production has a negative effect on the economy. Agriculture plays a key role in earning foreign income, called valuta. This means that the export of agricultural products ensures a steady flow of money to South Africa from foreign countries. It helps to stimulate the country’s economy.

If, however, production drops as a result of environmental factors, there is not enough food for export. It puts a strain on the economy and leads to entrenchments and unemployment in sectors closely linked to agriculture. Name some of these sectors in your and other areas that suffer when production drops.

3. Migration (movement of the population)

Over the past few years there was an increase in the movement of inhabitants from rural to urban areas. In the 1990’s the tempo at which urbanisation took place, was estimated at 750 000 per year. These people mostly end up in informal settlements. Not all of them manage to find a job in the city.

These migrants experience the same ecological disadvantages in the cities as they had to contend with in rural areas. The concentration of a large number of people in an area with limited resources, leads to the control of resources by certain groups.

Local power structures are formed where certain leaders obtain power by regulating the basic resources such as land and the allocation of houses and services. This can cause tension and malpractices.

Migration also leads to an increase in the number of informal settlements. At present the inhabitants of these settlements represent more than 30% of the total urban population. Informal settlements are found in most South African cities. Near Cape Town, for example, many of these houses consisting of any kind of waste material, from corrugated iron and planks to plastic sheets, are erected along the freeways. What are these inhabitants’ biggest problems? What possible solutions can you think of?

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geography grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11057/1.1
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