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Air / gases

  • The movement of air is called wind.
  • Wind affects many things in the ecosystem ie speeds up evaporation, assist in pollination of plants and the dispersal of their seeds.
  • Air is composed of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 4% Carbon dioxide and water vapour.
    • Oxygen – used in cellular respiration and combustion and is returned to the environment by the process of photosynthesis.
    • Carbon dioxide – is a product of cellular respiration and decayed organic matter. It is removed from the atmosphere by plants during the process ofphotosynthesis.
    • Nitrogen – is needed by all living organisms for the synthesis of proteins.
    • Water vapour - the amount of water vapour found in the air remains constant on average, however, it can vary greatly from one place to another. Some parts ofthe Earth are prone to high humidity levels, why other locations have very dry air. Much of what we consider weather is caused by water vapour. The clouds inthe sky are largely made up of it, and it is the condensation of this vapour into droplets that creates rain and snow.

Edaphic factors:

Soil structure

  • Humus content is the decomposed remains of dead organic matter. It gives
  • the topsoil its dark colour. It supplies plants with nutrients and helps the soil
  • absorb (retain) water. Soils rich in humus are fertile soils.
  • Texture of soil is determined by the size of the soil particles.

Soil properties

  • How acid or alkaline a soil is, can be measured by the pH scale .
  • pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
  • The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. Neutral solutions have a pH value of 7 . Acid solutions have a pH value of less than 7 and alkaline solutions greater than 7 .
  • Litmus paper or universal indicator can be used to determine whether a solution is acid or alkaline.

Physiographic factors:

Aspect

  • Refers to the position of an area in relation to the sun or wind or wave action.
  • It is the direction that the slope faces ie North, South, East, West .
  • In Southern Hemisphere -
    • North facing habitats receive:
      • more solar radiation than a South facing one.
      • are warmer and drier
      • greater variety of animals
    • South facing habitats are:
      • cooler
      • have a higher water capacity
      • plant growth is luxurious

Slope

  • Also referred to as the gradient which represents the steepness of a slope.
  • Affects the rate of water run-off
    • Ie Steep slope – encourages fast run-off of water and causes soil erosion. Soils tend to be shallow and infertile and plant growth is reduced. Plants are small and few animals present
  • Gentle slope – favours slower flow of surface water, reduces erosion, and increases availability of water to plants.

Altitude

  • Is the height of the land above sea level.
  • At high altitudes :
    • the temperature is lower ,
    • the wind speed is greater,
    • and the rainfall less and more likely to get snow.
    • Less plant and animal species found
    • Plants more stunted than at lower elevations.

Biotic components

Living organisms in an ecosystem are usually grouped according to how they obtain food.

  • Autotrophs that make their own food are known as producers, while
  • Heterotrophs that eat other organisms, living or dead, are known as consumers.
  • The producers include land and aquatic plants, algae and microscopic phytoplankton in the ocean.
  • They all make their own food by using chemicals and energy sources from their environment.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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why and for what was five kingdom of classification of organisms introduced
SUBHIKSHA Reply
give the ans as fast as possible
SUBHIKSHA
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
Mpho Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
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