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Field work (21 march)

The class will be broken into groups. You must work with different people than you worked with for the weather station measurements. We will visit two sites, with a set of tasks to be done at each site. Each group is responsible for the following:

Site 1 (below a small dam):

(1) Locate and survey one cross-section; identify bankfull stage IF that can be identified in the stream section we are studying. Be sure to measure the left and right edge of water (LEW and REW, respectively), and remember the hydrologist always faces downstream.

(2) Measure discharge at your designated cross-section. You should try to have no more than 10% of the flow in any one section. Since we only have one current meter, just make one measurement in each section for 10 seconds at 0.6 of the depth.

(3) At the deepest point in the stream (“thalweg”): (a) measure the velocity with a current meter at 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 times the depth; do this for a minimum of 40 seconds and use the rating table provided to you; (b) measure the velocity using v = (2gh)0.5, where h is the rise in water level against some obstruction, such as the stadia rod; and (c) measure the velocity using a float over a distance of around 5 m.

(4) Measure the water surface slope along a short reach centered on your cross-section using a clinometer.

(5) Estimate a value for Manning's "n" for the area immediately around your cross-section. Guidance for this should come from the tabulated values in the handout (Chow, 1959).

(6) Do a Wolman pebble count (minimum of 100 pebbles) along your cross-section. Samples should be systematically spaced at a distance that is roughly equal to the second or third largest particle in your cross-section. Note that you will need several transects across the stream in order to obtain the necessary sample size (each additional transect should be about one meter upstream of the previous count). Sampling transects should extend from bankfull to bankfull.(7) Collect the information to classify the stream in the vicinity of your cross-section according to: (i) Rosgen (1994) and (ii) Montgomery and Buffington (1993, 1997).

Site 2 (more natural reach):

(1) Locate and do a rough survey (maximum of 20 points) of one cross-section. Locate the cross-section in a location that would be good for measuring discharge. Be sure to identify current water level and bankfull in your survey.

(2) Measure the water surface slope along a short reach centered on your cross-section using a clinometer.

(3) Estimate a value for Manning's "n" for the area immediately around your cross-section. Guidance for this should come from the tabulated values in the handout (Chow, 1959).

(4) Collect the information to classify the stream in the vicinity of your cross-section according to: (i) Rosgen (1994) and (ii) Montgomery and Buffington (1993, 1997).

(5) Each individual should make a field sketch (plan view) of the channel reach under study. This sketch should include the banks and an indication of the adjacent topography and vegetation. Be sure to include, along with other important features: (i) the approximate location and size of the major habitat units within the study reach; and (ii) the approximate location of each cross-section. To facilitate the drawing of the sketch maps, each group should leave their string up until the entire class has completed all portions of this exercise.

Questions & Answers

encoding is the last step in memory stracture
FARWA Reply
echoic memory reflect humans visual system
FARWA Reply
getting the information back from stored area of brain is called retrieval
FARWA
no , echoic memory reflect upon things you hear , that's Iconic memory which deals with visual information
Nancy
I'll be studying psychology soon. Where do I start?
Jane Reply
I would start by learning basic terminology and definitions cause there's a lot of it and learning the different concepts behind psychology and there meanings and there use then go onto introduction into psychology
why is psychology a science?
Godslove Reply
it's a social science
Alex
what we define as science is a systematic arrangement of knowledge based on experimental and observational data.so psychology is a science. as for what kind of science it is depends on how and what information are you using in your approach towards understanding the said data and to what conclusion.
imirror
depending on your approach and understanding Psychology can classify as medical or social science like anthropology
imirror
your friend is under stress because she has not prepared well for the examination what strategies would you suggest her? express in 100 or 150 words
Masi Reply
hello
Masi
yess
dcs
where on the disorders does paranoid thought come in?
Hot Reply
hot shots will give you paranoid thoughts
Kimberly
Kimberly 😂😆😂 yes hot shots will give you paranoid thoughts
Brandon
what compound motivation is attention extension
Gauri Reply
what is psychology
Drishti Reply
The scientific study of the mind
Gina
scientific study of mind and behaviour
Siva
...
Saeed
Scientific study of mind soul behaviour and experiences
Ayush
scientific srtudy of behaviour and cognitive processes
Reshmi
Apply social psychology on real life in Nigerian universities campus
tyosaa Reply
what is the meaning of an idiosyncratic pattern
Krystle Reply
I am here for the first time just here to learn...
michael Reply
hi I'm new on here first time
Lisa
hello
GOPAL
hi,am new here
jennifer
what is this group all about
jennifer
Suppose an individual with OCD experiences obsessive thoughts about germs, contamination, and disease whenever she encounters a doorknob. What might have constituted a viable unconditioned stimulus? 
la Reply
What are factors that influence learning?
Enos Reply
Environment Heredity(I am not sure about heredity)
Tusita
Helpful. .. thanks
Enos
Sure, anytime
Tusita
I have other questions also
Enos
Based on the factors affecting learning, how do we improve learning
Enos
I think that addressing that everyone learns in their own time
James
Peer group influence can also be another reason
Sorie
Also knowing what's going on at home. what pressure are the parents putting on them.
James
am I close or no
James
also is there a lack of care? going one more step. with peer groups do an activity that shows how much they have in common
James
I think one's society has a big role to play in determining what/when & how he/she learns.
BECHEM
multiple reasons at different stages. at the earliest stages of development in a child is behaviour of people around. A baby starts learning basic social expressions and actions by mimicking the people around it. further social and cultural practices enforces learning and behaviour
imirror
from need to nutrition everything affect development and learning when choosing on a single factor of influence it is necessary to keep these other factors in the mind as environment around people is very plastic and flexible and there are many variables playing active role
imirror
social interaction is surely a big influence hence can be used to improve learning.
imirror
to encourage learning it is important to establish curiosity and notion of possibility for more perspectives habit of questioning possibilities and cause and effect in a great way to encourage learning in my opinion. language is another important factor
imirror
under what schedule of reinforcement do animals learn from ?
Phelisa Reply
the role of emotional intelligence in a courtship behavior
Caren Reply
1
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Source:  OpenStax, Field measurements in hydrology. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10769/1.1
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