# 0.4 Bases, orthogonal bases, biorthogonal bases, frames, tight  (Page 5/5)

 Page 5 / 5

If the redundancy measure $A$ in [link] and [link] is one, the matrices must be square and the system has an orthonormal basis.

Frames are over-complete versions of non-orthogonal bases and tight frames are over-complete versions of orthonormal bases. Tight frames areimportant in wavelet analysis because the restrictions on the scaling function coefficients discussed in  Chapter: The Scaling Function and Scaling Coefficients, Wavelet and Wavelet Coefficients guarantee not that the wavelets will be a basis, but a tight frame. In practice, however, theyare usually a basis.

## Sinc expansion as a tight frame example

An example of an infinite-dimensional tight frame is the generalized Shannon's sampling expansion for the over-sampled case [link] . If a function is over-sampled but the sinc functions remains consistentwith the upper spectral limit $W$ , the sampling theorem becomes

$g\left(t\right)\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}=\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\frac{TW}{\pi }\sum _{n}g\left(Tn\right)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\frac{sin\left(\left(t-Tn\right)W\right)}{\left(t-Tn\right)W}$

or using $R$ as the amount of over-sampling

$RW\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}=\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\frac{\pi }{T},\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\text{for}\phantom{\rule{4.pt}{0ex}}R\ge 1$

we have

$g\left(t\right)\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}=\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\frac{1}{R}\sum _{n}g\left(Tn\right)\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}\frac{sin\left(\frac{\pi }{RT}\left(t-Tn\right)\right)}{\frac{\pi }{RT}\left(t-Tn\right)}$

where the sinc functions are no longer orthogonal now. In fact, they are no longer a basis as they are not independent. They are, however, a tightframe and, therefore, act as though they were an orthogonal basis but now there is a “redundancy" factor $R$ as a multiplier in the formula.

Notice that as $R$ is increased from unity, [link] starts as [link] where each sample occurs where the sinc function is one or zero but becomes an expansion with the shifts still being $t=Tn$ , however, the sinc functions become wider so that the samples are no longer at thezeros. If the signal is over-sampled, either the expression [link] or [link] could be used. They both are over-sampled but [link] allows the spectrum of the signal to increase up to the limit without distortion while [link] does not. The generalized sampling theorem [link] has a built-in filtering action which may be an advantage or it may not.

The application of frames and tight frames to what is called a redundant discrete wavelet transform (RDWT) is discussed later in Section: Overcomplete Representations, Frames, Redundant Transforms, and Adaptive Bases and their use in Section: Nonlinear Filtering or Denoising with the DWT . They are also needed for certain adaptive descriptionsdiscussed at the end of Section: Overcomplete Representations, Frames, Redundant Transforms, and Adaptive Bases where an independent subset of theexpansion vectors in the frame are chosen according to some criterion to give an optimal basis.

## Conditional and unconditional bases

A powerful point of view used by Donoho [link] gives an explanation of which basis systems are best for a particular class of signals and whythe wavelet system is good for a wide variety of signal classes.

Donoho defines an unconditional basis as follows. If we have a functionclass $F$ with a norm defined and denoted $||·{||}_{F}$ and a basis set ${f}_{k}$ such that every function $g\in F$ has a unique representation $g={\sum }_{k}{a}_{k}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{f}_{k}$ with equality defined as a limit using the norm, we consider the infinite expansion

$g\left(t\right)=\sum _{k}{m}_{k}\phantom{\rule{0.166667em}{0ex}}{a}_{k}\phantom{\rule{0.277778em}{0ex}}{f}_{k}\left(t\right).$

If for all $g\in F$ , the infinite sum converges for all $|{m}_{k}|\le 1$ , the basis is called an unconditional basis . This is very similar to unconditional or absolute convergence of a numerical series [link] , [link] , [link] . If the convergence depends on ${m}_{k}=1$ for some $g\left(t\right)$ , the basis is called a conditional basis .

An unconditional basis means all subsequences converge and all sequences of subsequences converge. It means convergence does not depend on the orderof the terms in the summation or on the sign of the coefficients. This implies a very robust basis where the coefficients drop off rapidly forall members of the function class. That is indeed the case for wavelets which are unconditional bases for a very wide set of function classes [link] , [link] , [link] .

Unconditional bases have a special property that makes them near-optimal for signal processing in several situations. This property has to do withthe geometry of the space of expansion coefficients of a class of functions in an unconditional basis. This is described in [link] .

The fundamental idea of bases or frames is representing a continuous function by a sequence of expansion coefficients. We have seen that theParseval's theorem relates the ${L}^{2}$ norm of the function to the ${\ell }^{2}$ norm of coefficients for orthogonal bases and tight frames [link] . Different function spaces are characterized by different norms on the continuous function. If we have an unconditional basis for thefunction space, the norm of the function in the space not only can be related to some norm of the coefficients in the basis expansion, but theabsolute values of the coefficients have the sufficient information to establish the relation. So there is no condition on the sign or phaseinformation of the expansion coefficients if we only care about the norm of the function, thus unconditional .

For this tutorial discussion, it is sufficient to know that there are theoretical reasons why wavelets are an excellent expansion system for awide set of signal processing problems. Being an unconditional basis also sets the stage for efficient and effective nonlinear processing of thewavelet transform of a signal for compression, denoising, and detection which are discussed in  Chapter: The Scaling Function and Scaling Coefficients, Wavelet and Wavelet Coefficients .

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!