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In addition to the formation of silicon, the HCl coproduct reacts with the SiHCl 3 reactant to form silicon tetrachloride (SiCl 4 ) and hydrogen as major byproducts of the process, [link] . This reaction represents a major disadvantage with the Seimens process: poor efficiency of silicon and chlorine consumption. Typically, only 30% of the silicon introduced into CVD reactor is converted into high-purity polysilicon.

In order to improve efficiency the HCl, SiCl 4 , H 2 , and unreacted SiHCl 3 are separated and recovered for recycling. [link] illustrates the entire chlorosilane process starting with MGS and including the recycling of the reaction byproducts to achieve high overall process efficiency. As a consequence, the production cost of high-purity EGS depends on the commercial usefulness of the byproduct, SiCl 4 . Additional disadvantages of the Seimens process are derived from its relatively small batch size, slow growth rate, and high power consumption. These issues have lead to the investigation of alternative cost efficient routes to EGS.

Schematic representation of the reaction pathways for the formation of EGS using the chlorosilane process.

Silane process

An alternative process for the production of EGS that has begun to receive commercial attention is the pyrolysis of silane (SiH 4 ). The advantages of producing EGS from SiH 4 instead of SiHCl 3 are potentially lower costs associated with lower reaction temperatures, and less harmful byproducts. Silane decomposes<900 °C to give silicon and hydrogen, [link] .

Silane may be prepared by a number of routes, each having advantages with respect to purity and production cost. The simplest process involves the direct reaction of MGS powders with magnesium at 500 °C in a hydrogen atmosphere, to form magnesium silicide (Mg 2 Si). The magnesium silicide is then reacted with ammonium chloride in liquid ammonia below 0 °C, [link] .

This process is ideally suited to the removal of boron impurities (a p-type dopant in Si), because the diborane (B 2 H 6 ) produced during the reaction forms the Lewis acid-base complex, H 3 B(NH 3 ), whose volatility is sufficiently lower than SiH 4 , allowing for the purification of the latter. It is possible to prepare EGS with a boron content of ≤ 20 ppt using SiH 4 synthesized in this manner. However, phosphorus (another dopant) in the form of PH 3 may be present as a contaminant requiring subsequent purification of the SiH 4 .

Alternative routes to SiH 4 involve the chemical reduction of SiCl 4 by either lithium hydride ( [link] ), lithium aluminum hydride ( [link] ), or via hydrogenation in the presence of elemental silicon ( [link] - [link] ). The hydride reduction reactions may be carried-out on relatively large scales (ca. 50 kg), but only batch processes. In contrast, Union Carbide has adapted the hydrogenation to a continuous process, involving disproportionation reactions of chlorosilanes ( [link] - [link] ) and the fractional distillation of silane ( [link] ).

Pyrolysis of silane on resistively heated polysilicon filaments at 700-800 °C yields polycrystalline EGS. As noted above, the EGS formed has remarkably low boron impurities compared with material prepared from trichlorosilane. Moreover, the resulting EGS is less contaminated with transition metals from the reactor container because SiH 4 decomposition does not cause as much of a corrosion problem as is observed with halide precursor compounds.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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