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Nearly twenty minutes later, the opening is revisited.

Once again, time has had an effect. At the reprise, the upper strings revive the two-note pattern that they played at the opening: This is what creates the impression of return. However, the winds originally played similar patterns to the strings. At the return, their music consists only of isolated single attacks. There is also a murmuring underlying rhythm that was not present at the opening. The overall result is of an incomplete reminiscence, because there are more disconnected attacks and“bubbling”activity underlying the upper strings.

Measuring time's effect

Short-term and long-term returns

The distance between original and return is measured in the amount of intervening music. If hardly any music separatesthe related passages, the wait is parenthetical; if a great deal happens, the wait is more significant. Clock-time canbe a helpful guide, but only in the context of the piece's specific proportions: a minute is negligible in an opera,but nearly a lifetime in a bagatelle.

If the wait is long and the changes are subtle, progress is occurring very gradually.

If, on the other hand, the wait is brief and the changes are dramatic, the material is particularly volatile. Themore volatile the material, the less likely that it will ever be recuperated in its original form.

For instance, consider the opening of Beethoven's, opus 126, no. 1. The main theme is presented. It is then immediately repeated in itsentirety. The repetition is embellished: it is more rhythmically active and reaches higher in register.Change is immediate, making the repetition more dynamic and progressive. Bagatelle

Compare the Beethoven to the following passage from Igor Stravinsky's. In the excerpt, a ruminative melody is presented. Then, after a shortwait, the melody returns. Rite of Spring

Once again, the transformed version follows closely on the heels of the original. In this case, the changes arealmost cataclysmic! The theme is presented more boldly and in a higher register. The texture is ferocious andagitated, with rapid rhythmic figuration and more complex, strident harmony.

In both the Beethoven and the Stravinsky, the volatility of the material is a signal that it will never be recovered inits original form. Local impermanence makes large-scale stability less plausible. If a musical idea is so restlessthat it can barely "hold onto itself" when it is immediately repeated, it makes it less likely that the music will ever be ableto recuperate itself exactly.

When the original passage and its return are further apart, time's effect may be a reflection of the original's inherentstability or volatility. But it also reflects the power of the intervening music to leave its mark. In, Ulyssses' tribulations and love affairs do not mar his triumphant reunion with his family: He is ableto reclaim his wife and son. On the other hand, experience is not so kind to King Lear. During the play's first scene,he banishes his most faithful daughter, Cordelia. They are eventually reunited. But the catastrophic events that haveoccured in the interim cannot be undone: His beloved daughter dies in his arms. The Odyssey

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Sound reasoning. OpenStax CNX. May 31, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10214/1.21
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