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Sexual schooling

Sexual segregation can be seen in many fish schools. In eastern mosquitofish ( Gambusia holbrooki ) it is costly for females who are foraging to be sexually harassed by males (Bisazza et al 2007), which often happens to solitary females. Therefore, they school with other females when males are in sight, or school with schools of males (who do not sexually harass), staying closest to the largest males (Bisazza et al 2007). In guppies, females form the base of a school, while males tradeoff schooling with the intention of finding mating opportunities. Males cannot search for mates while schooling, as schools either engage in anti-predatory or foraging behavior. Therefore, they must tradeoff between increased motility for mating opportunities and the increased defenses and resources that accompany schooling (Griffiths and Magurran 1998). In high predator areas, females school more, but are harassed more too because males spend less time schooling, foraging, and avoiding predators than females, and more time looking for mates, who are easier to find in groups (Magurran and Seghers 1994). These situations form the crux of the sexual conflict between the sexes: females try to avoid harassment by males through schooling, though this is not the only reason for schooling behavior ( [link] ), while males pursue these schools as opportunities for increased mating potential. The “winner” of the conflict is determined by the strength of the school as well as the threat posed to solitary males, especially in high predator areas. Males increase their fitness by mating more, while females increase their fitness by acquiring resources to support current and future offspring. As such, the threat to males is only significant if it outweighs the benefit of increased mating opportunities. The conflict between males and females can be found in many species, but the use of schools as a defense is an interesting physical manifestation of this evolutionary tug of war to harass and defend.

Mixed schooling

mixed schooling fish

Mixed schooling is an interesting phenomenon that is observed in a few species. Stoplight parrotfish, striped parrotfish, and ocean surgeonfish will school together, but only the largest constituent uses the school for protection: in the event of a threat the lesser represented species will leave and hide behind coral. A possible explanation for this behavior is that underrepresented fish may stick out and would not be protected within a mixed school (Wolf 1985). Other than the potential for better foraging, no explanation has arisen as to why mixed schooling of this nature occurs. Especially since the school is composed of different species, there is reason to believe that competition would be significantly increased, though this has not been observed. However, the reason for mixed schooling between postlarval French grunts, ( Haemulon flavolineatum ) and mysids is much more obvious. Postlarval French grunts form schools based on visual recognition, and mysides look like grunts up until 5 days. After 5 days, the grunts abandon the mysids as they look different. This is an example of young fish being unable to distinguish between species and mysids going along for the ride so long as they can get food out of the association (Kotchian and MacFarland 1982).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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