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Self-regulation: a definition and introduction

What is self-regulation? Which mental processes compose it, and how do thoseprocesses work together? Self-regulation is the conscious and nonconsciousprocesses by which people regulate their thoughts, emotions, attention, behavior,and impulses. People generate thoughts, feelings and actions and adapt those tothe attainment of personal goals. Behavioral self-regulation invovles self-observing and strategically adjusting performance processes, such as one'smethod of learning, whereas environmental self-regulation refers to observing andadjecting environmental conditions or outcomes. Covert self regulation involvesmonitoring and adjusting cognitive and affective states, such as imagery forremembering or relaxing. Someones performance and regulation is going to bechanged by their goals, motivations, and decisions, People self-regulate their ownfunctioning in order to achieve goals or change how they are thinking.

Someones actions and mental processes depend on one's beliefs and motives. Self-regulation is cyclical - that is, feedback (information, responses) fromprior actions and performances changes the adjustments made during current efforts.Adjustments are necessary because personal, behavioral, and environmentalfactors are constantly changing during the course of learning and performance.Someones performances are constantly being changed by their attention and actions.Forethought is the phase that precedes efforts to act and sets the stage for aperformance. A person self-reflects on performances afterwards, and thisreflection influences their responses.

Forethought phase

In the forethought phase people engage in a) task analysis and b) self-motivationalbeliefs. Task analysis involves the setting of goals and strategic planning.Self motivational beliefs involves self- efficacy, outcome expectations, intrinsicinterest/value, and goal orientation.

Performance phase

In the performance phase people perform self-control processes and self-observation strategies. Self-control involves self-instruction (variousverbalizations), imagery (forming mental pictures), attention focusing and taskstrategies (which assist learning and performance by reducing a task to itsessential parts and organizing the parts meaningfully. For example, when studentslisten to a history lecture, they might identify a limited number of key pointsand record them chronologically in brief sentences. People do those things whilelearning (say in education), and in non- educational settings.

Also as part of someone's performance they do self-observation. This refers to aperson's tracking of specific aspects of their own performance, the conditions thatsurround it, and the effects that it produces. You can set goals in forethoughtabout how you are going to do self- observation.

Self-reflection phase

Bandura (1986) Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. has identified two self-reflected processes that areclosely associated with self-observation: self- judgment and self-reactions. Self-judgment involvesself-evaluating one's performance and attributing casual significance to the results. Self-evaluationrefers to comparing self-monitored information with a standard or goal, such as a sprinter judging practiceruns according to his or her best previous effort. Previous performance or self-criteria involvescomparisons of current performance with earlier levels of one's behavior, such as a baseline or the previousperformance.

Questions & Answers

What is economics?
Bubu Reply
by this time
Emmanuel
It is a social science that analyses production,distribution and consumption of goods and services
Emmanuel
A social science that study human behavior in relationship with decision making
Jessica
What are the typical patterns of GDP for a high-income economy like the United States in the long run and the short run?
mwangala Reply
What are the limitation and significant of macroeconomic
Usman Reply
explain the significance of concerpt of opportunity cost in planning
Mwanaid Reply
what is meant by the price elasticity of demand?
Martine Reply
when price of a commodity increase it's demand contracts , and whe the price of a commodity decreases it's demand expands so the degree of change in demand in response to change in own price of the commodity is called PED . Ed = percentage change in quantity demanded / percentage change in price
shaswat
What are the limitations of macroeconomic and their segnificant
Usman Reply
Discuss the role of competition in stimulating economic growth?
Daniel Reply
competition stimulate economic growth because in such types of economy,they is no monopoly power every supplier will want to produce to meet customers choice which brings about quality production and attract invested and customers into such economy
Koka
competition creates Monopoly because of economy of scale. it's not antithesis but different side of same coin
toko
competition result in high economic growth since every firm will intend to provide quality services and products to meet customers needs and requirements unlike in Monopoly situation where a firm just provide what it want to resulting in large stock piles of unwanted products ,ie inefficiency, howev
Mark
microeconomics study part of the economy but macroeconomic study the whole economy
Olokun Reply
studying the whole economy, solving the problem of the economy and building up the economy
Olokun
micro means small while macro means large
Olokun
standard of living is the footsteps of an economy because it plays important role for country to have crucial view about their budget ,import and export
Olokun
it will be differ because economic agent will only take their views on some part of household
Olokun
can opportunity cost be zero
OBED Reply
how many types of transportation do we have
Jacob
yes. when a customer's purchasing power is high, he may have d ability to purchase all he needs, dt makes opportunity cost zero
George
please can give more explanation on this question
OBED
what are the factors production
PETER Reply
Labour capital entrepreneurs
Leta
Land,capital, labour,and the entrepreneur
Tantoh
I will like to know use of calculus in economics
JHUMA Reply
do they use it in economics?
Pranav
I want to know if I should take calculus or statistics and probability my senior year of highschool
Yahir
yes for example in monopolistic competitive market..... TR=TC* & THIS CALCULATED BY CHANGING( DERIVATIVE LAW) MR =MC ** WILL BE THE FORMULA THAT USE.
Leta
please in which topic in economic is the question coming from.
Tantoh
from PCF in economics
Leta
why is unitary proportional to responsiveness
Etim Reply
any tip for igcse economics exam?pls
Stacey Reply
well
The
What is a market
Divine Reply
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
what are the variables that affect demand
Divine
price of the related goods 2 price of the given commodity 3 income of the consumer 4 taste and preference 5 expectation in the future price
John
pls the taste and preference
Nas
explain briefly
Nas
a consumer taste and preference commodity changes for a time the man becomes
John
sorry sorry
John
is when the price of a commodity becomes high and can't afford example Samsung instead of iPhone
John
consumers who have high intense for goods will purchase the goods even if the price of that commodity increases because he or she preferred that commodity.people will be prefer iphone as its price increase
Yussif
as usual bad taste of preference is when a consumer regrets from one commodity to another in terms of the price
John
thanks alot
Nas
you're welcome
John
#Preference; #Income #Test
Dereje
#price Of Commodity #Income #Taste #Preference
Dereje
#Market is The Place Where Buyers And Sellers Are Exchanging Their Goods And service. #
Dereje
difference between macro and micro economics
Lawrence
Microeconomic Study about individual consumers market But Macroeconomis Study General economic Process Such As #Aggregate Demand #Aggregate Supples #GDp= #GNp
Dereje
nice so can u run down a brife discussion on GDP
Lawrence
good
Chinex
pls can someone differentiate between the perfectly elastic, perfectly inelastic and unitary
yhar Reply
and then again pls what are the types of elasticity, the methods of calculating it thank u
yhar
Perfectly inelastic is when the coefficient is equal to zero Unitary is when the coefficient is equal to one But am not sure if we have perfectly inelastic
John
I'm kind off confuse abt the PED, IED and co are they the types of elasticity we've
yhar
Yh the types are price elasticity cross and income elasticity of demand
John
do we've specific formulaes to calculate for each of them
yhar
yes. PED. changes in quantity demanded divided by changes in price
Vealmurugan
so pls what's the general name given to unitary, elastic n inelastic ? are the names given to the final result after doing the calculations?
yhar
P2-P1÷P1×100or Q2-Q1×Q1×100 PED
John
***tutor2u.net/economics/reference/price-elasticity-of-demand
Vealmurugan
They are elasticity coefficient
John
@John I don't get u well pls
yhar
whichone
John
P2-P1÷P1×100or Q2-Q1×Q1×100 PED @john pls tis is what m talking abt
yhar
Yh is the formula for PED
John
Pls are you having a for PED
John
thank u very
yhar
dy
Jobang
what is economics
Tayyeb
economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative use
John
is a science which study human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses
Divine
yes this is because economic provide a body of knowledge on human economic principles under theories and these theories can be verified with real world data using science method in other words it was scientific method in arriving at solution identification of problem or basic data collection among
John
unitary ElasticWhen Elasticty =1 Perfectily Elastic When 0<1 inelastic when 0>
Dereje
Difference between extinct and extici spicies
Amanpreet Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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While the American heart association suggests that meditation might be used in conjunction with more traditional treatments as a way to manage hypertension
Beverly Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Emotion, cognition, and social interaction - information from psychology and new ideas topics self help. OpenStax CNX. Jul 11, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10403/1.71
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