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In this module, we examine motivational challenges in the classroom. As you will soon see, many of these challenges are related to individuals’ confidencein their abilities to succeed. Recognizing motivational problems as they arise, and intervening early, will help reduce the likelihood that such problems willendure. Thus, we consider evidence-based practices to minimize the challenges, so that we can support our students’ success.


Sometimes students' motivational goals actually undermine academic achievement. Often they are a negative byproduct of the competitiveness of performance goals (Urdan, 2004). If teachers (and sometimes also fellow students) put too much emphasis on being the best in the class, and if interest in learning thematerial therefore suffers, then some students may decide that success is beyond their reach or may not be desirable in any case. Thealternative—simply avoiding failure—may seem wiser as well as more feasible. Once a student adopts this attitude, he or she may underachieve moreor less deliberately, doing only the minimum work necessary to avoid looking foolish or to avoid serious conflict with the teacher. Operating this way is a form of self-handicapping— deliberate actions and choices thatthe reduce chances of success. Students may self-handicap in a number of ways; in addition to not working hard, they may procrastinate about completingassignments, for example, or set goals that are unrealistically high. Another self-handicapping strategy is to become involved in too many other activitiesor place undue importance on other tasks. The main idea here is that self- handicapping allows individuals to attribute their failure to factors other than their own ability . Blaming my poor performance on the project on the fact that I’m really busy is less damaging to my self-esteem than blaming my performance on the factthat I didn’t really understand the concepts.


As just mentioned, procrastination can be a form of self-handicapping, but people procrastinate for many reasons beyond protecting their sense of self-worth. And it is not always deliberate. Students might be overwhelmed by thecomplexity of a significant paper or project, for example, and not know how to get started. Others may experience anxiety over the sheer quantity of work theyhave to get done, and this may lead to a kind of paralysis. Still others may be completely bored by the task.

Teachers can help students overcome procrastination and other types of self-handicapping by tackling the problem head on. Scanning the classroom a few minutes after assigning a worksheet will reveal students who are not working. Wise teachers also build in early check-points for longer term projects in order to uncover problems before they become too large. Like many self-defeating behaviors, acknowledging responsibility for self-handicapping is an important first step. Next comes an exploration for why students are undermining their own successes. Understanding the underlying reasons helps identify the approaches that will be most effective.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Motivation and the learning environment. OpenStax CNX. Mar 27, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11415/1.2
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