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In this module, we examine motivational challenges in the classroom. As you will soon see, many of these challenges are related to individuals’ confidencein their abilities to succeed. Recognizing motivational problems as they arise, and intervening early, will help reduce the likelihood that such problems willendure. Thus, we consider evidence-based practices to minimize the challenges, so that we can support our students’ success.

Self-handicapping

Sometimes students' motivational goals actually undermine academic achievement. Often they are a negative byproduct of the competitiveness of performance goals (Urdan, 2004). If teachers (and sometimes also fellow students) put too much emphasis on being the best in the class, and if interest in learning thematerial therefore suffers, then some students may decide that success is beyond their reach or may not be desirable in any case. Thealternative—simply avoiding failure—may seem wiser as well as more feasible. Once a student adopts this attitude, he or she may underachieve moreor less deliberately, doing only the minimum work necessary to avoid looking foolish or to avoid serious conflict with the teacher. Operating this way is a form of self-handicapping— deliberate actions and choices thatthe reduce chances of success. Students may self-handicap in a number of ways; in addition to not working hard, they may procrastinate about completingassignments, for example, or set goals that are unrealistically high. Another self-handicapping strategy is to become involved in too many other activitiesor place undue importance on other tasks. The main idea here is that self- handicapping allows individuals to attribute their failure to factors other than their own ability . Blaming my poor performance on the project on the fact that I’m really busy is less damaging to my self-esteem than blaming my performance on the factthat I didn’t really understand the concepts.

Procrastination

As just mentioned, procrastination can be a form of self-handicapping, but people procrastinate for many reasons beyond protecting their sense of self-worth. And it is not always deliberate. Students might be overwhelmed by thecomplexity of a significant paper or project, for example, and not know how to get started. Others may experience anxiety over the sheer quantity of work theyhave to get done, and this may lead to a kind of paralysis. Still others may be completely bored by the task.

Teachers can help students overcome procrastination and other types of self-handicapping by tackling the problem head on. Scanning the classroom a few minutes after assigning a worksheet will reveal students who are not working. Wise teachers also build in early check-points for longer term projects in order to uncover problems before they become too large. Like many self-defeating behaviors, acknowledging responsibility for self-handicapping is an important first step. Next comes an exploration for why students are undermining their own successes. Understanding the underlying reasons helps identify the approaches that will be most effective.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, Motivation and the learning environment. OpenStax CNX. Mar 27, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11415/1.2
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