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In addition to being influenced by their goals, interests, and attributions , students’ motives are affected by specific beliefs about the student’s personal capacities. In self-efficacy theory the beliefs become a primary, explicit explanation for motivation (Bandura, 1977, 1986, 1997). Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief that he/she is capable of carrying out a specific task or of reaching a specific goal. Note that the belief and theaction or goal are specific. Your self-efficacy is your beliefs about whether or not you can write an acceptable term paper, for example, or repair an automobile, or make friendswith the new student in class. These are relatively specific beliefs and tasks. Self-efficacy is not about whether you believe that you are intelligent ingeneral, whether you always like working with mechanical things, or think that you are generally a likeable person. These more general judgments are betterregarded as various mixtures of self-concepts (beliefs about general personal identity) or of self-esteem (evaluations of identity). They are important in their own right, and sometimes influence motivation, but only indirectly (Bong&Skaalvik, 2004).

Self-efficacy beliefs, furthermore, are not the same as “true” or documented skill or ability. They are self- constructed, meaning that they are personally developed perceptions. There can sometimes therefore be discrepancies between a person’s self-efficacybeliefs and the person’s abilities. You can believe that you can write a good term paper, for example, without actually being able to do so, and viceversa: you can believe yourself in capable of writing a paper, but discover that you are in fact able to do so. In this way self-efficacy is like the everyday idea of confidence , except that it is defined more precisely. And as with confidence, it is possible to have either too much or too little self-efficacy. The optimum level seems to be either at or slightly above true capacity (Bandura, 1997). As we indicate below, large discrepancies between self-efficacy and ability can create motivational problems for the individual.

Effects of self-efficacy on students’ behavior

Self-efficacy may sound like a uniformly desirable quality, but research as well as teachers’ experience suggests that its effects are a bit morecomplicated than they first appear. Self-efficacy has three main effects, each of which has both a negative or undesirable side and a positive or desirableside.

Choice of tasks

The first effect is that self-efficacy makes students more willing to choose tasks where they already feel confident of succeeding. While this seemsintuitive, given the definition of the concept of self-efficacy, it has also been supported by research on self-efficacy beliefs (Pajares&Schunk, 2001). For teachers, the effect on choice can be either welcome or not,depending on circumstances. If a student believes that he or she can solve mathematical problems, then the student is more likely to attempt themathematics homework that the teacher assigns.

Questions & Answers

different between demand and supply
Francis Reply
what is the demand and supply of Qd=40,000-6P Qs=14P-28,000 the equilibrium price
Rocky Reply
what is economics by Adams smith
Diana Reply
economics by Adams Smith's
to earn wealth more and more
what are the poor performance of the monopolies
Thandolwethu Reply
it controls only price or production not both a same time
Difference between demand and supply
Kareem Reply
demand talks about the consumers and supply also talks about producers
demand talks about the relationship between price and the quantity demanded for a certain goods and supply talks about the relationship between price and quantity supply of a certain goods .
demand show the quality demanded at different price n time whereas supply show the quality ready to sell in market by seller at different price n time.
describe the issue gain from trade will improve economic growth and living standard.
Allison Reply
discribe gain from trade will improve economic growth and living standard
discribe gain from trade will improve economic growth and living standard
what is the outcome of exchange rate?
gain from international trade to a country which import are elastic n export are inelastic
what is utility
Roberta Reply
the capacity of a good to satisfy our want.
what is the relationship between the elasticity of demand and total revenue
Atedago Reply
I don't know
negative. but for unit elasticity of demand, the relationship doesn't exist between them.
what is income elasticity of demand
Esther Reply
income elasticity of demand measure the degree of responsiveness of demand for a commodity to a small change in the income of the consumer
monopolistic competition has all except which of the following basic characteristics?
Sharon Reply
what are the Features of money
Abubakarr Reply
how to calculate the elasticity of supply?
Asnaira Reply
why is economics important
Gifted Reply
why is it important
Gifted Reply
for what?
what is demand
Mutala Reply
Demand Is Anything that A Customer are willing and able to buy at different price level.
what demand schedule
demand schedule is a tabular representation of different quantities of commodities that consumers are willing to purchase at a specific price and time while other factors are constant.
A full account of the demand, or perhaps we can say, the state of demand for any goods in a given market at a given time should state what the volume (weekly) of sales would be at each of a series of prices. Such an account, taking the form of a tabular statement, is known as a demand schedule.
State the type of elasticity of demand
price elasticity of demand . and it refers to the degree of responsiveness of change in quantity demanded for a commodity to a change in price if the commodity itself
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Oneonta epsy 275. OpenStax CNX. Jun 11, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11446/1.6
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