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Raoul Pictet ( [link] ) showed that by the evaporation of liquid sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon dioxide could be liquefied, which in turn was evaporated to cool oxygen gas enough to liquefy it. Pictet reported his results on December 22, 1877. Two days later, Louis Cailletet ( [link] ) announced his own method of liquefying oxygen. In both cases only a few drops could be produced, making analysis difficult. In 1891 James Dewar ( [link] ) was able to produce enough liquid oxygen to study. However, it was the process developed independently by Carl von Linde ( [link] ) and William Hampson (1854 - 1926).

Swiss chemist and physicist Raoul Pierre Pictet (1846 - 1929).
French physicist Louis Paul Cailletet (1832 - 1913).
Scottish chemist and physicist Sir James Dewar FRS (1842 - 1923).
German engineer Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde (1842 - 1934).


Sulfur was known in ancient times and is referred to in the Bible. English translations of the Bible commonly referred to burning sulfur as brimstone , giving rise to the name of fire-and-brimstone sermons, in which listeners are reminded of the fate of eternal damnation that await the unbelieving and unrepentant. It is from this part of the Bible that Hell is implied to smell of sulfur (likely due to its association with volcanic activity). Sulfur ointments were used in ancient Egypt, while it was used for fumigation in Greece. A natural form of sulfur known as shiliuhuang was known in China since the 6 th century BC. However, it was not until 1777 that Lavoisier ( [link] ) convinced the scientific community that sulfur was an element and not a compound.


The element was discovered in 1817 by Berzelius ( [link] ), who found the element associated with tellurium. It was discovered as a byproduct of sulfuric acid production.

Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779 - 1848).


Tellurium was discovered in the 18 th century in gold ore from the mines in Zlatna, Transylvania. In 1782 Müller von Reichenstein ( [link] ), the Hungarian chief inspector of mines in Transylvania, concluded that the ore was bismuth sulfide. However, the following year, he reported that this was erroneous and that the ore contained mostly gold and an unknown metal very similar to antimony. After three years of work Müller determined the specific gravity of the mineral and noted the radish-like smell of the white smoke evolved when the new metal was heated. Nevertheless, he was not able to identify this metal and gave it the names aurum paradoxium and metallum problematicum , as it did not show the properties predicted for the expected antimony.

A stamp showing Hungarian mineralogist Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein (1742 - 1825).

In 1789 Kitaibel ( [link] ) also discovered the element independently in an ore from Deutsch-Pilsen which had been regarded as argentiferous molybdenite , but later he gave the credit to Müller. In 1798, the name was chosen by Klaproth ( [link] ) who earlier isolated it from the mineral calaverite.

Hungarian botanist and chemist Pál Kitaibel (1757 - 1817).
Figure. German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743 –1817).

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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waht is hydrating power of lithium carbonates
Mahar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of the main group elements. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11124/1.25
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