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Raoul Pictet ( [link] ) showed that by the evaporation of liquid sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon dioxide could be liquefied, which in turn was evaporated to cool oxygen gas enough to liquefy it. Pictet reported his results on December 22, 1877. Two days later, Louis Cailletet ( [link] ) announced his own method of liquefying oxygen. In both cases only a few drops could be produced, making analysis difficult. In 1891 James Dewar ( [link] ) was able to produce enough liquid oxygen to study. However, it was the process developed independently by Carl von Linde ( [link] ) and William Hampson (1854 - 1926).

Swiss chemist and physicist Raoul Pierre Pictet (1846 - 1929).
French physicist Louis Paul Cailletet (1832 - 1913).
Scottish chemist and physicist Sir James Dewar FRS (1842 - 1923).
German engineer Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde (1842 - 1934).

Sulfur

Sulfur was known in ancient times and is referred to in the Bible. English translations of the Bible commonly referred to burning sulfur as brimstone , giving rise to the name of fire-and-brimstone sermons, in which listeners are reminded of the fate of eternal damnation that await the unbelieving and unrepentant. It is from this part of the Bible that Hell is implied to smell of sulfur (likely due to its association with volcanic activity). Sulfur ointments were used in ancient Egypt, while it was used for fumigation in Greece. A natural form of sulfur known as shiliuhuang was known in China since the 6 th century BC. However, it was not until 1777 that Lavoisier ( [link] ) convinced the scientific community that sulfur was an element and not a compound.

Selenium

The element was discovered in 1817 by Berzelius ( [link] ), who found the element associated with tellurium. It was discovered as a byproduct of sulfuric acid production.

Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1779 - 1848).

Tellurium

Tellurium was discovered in the 18 th century in gold ore from the mines in Zlatna, Transylvania. In 1782 Müller von Reichenstein ( [link] ), the Hungarian chief inspector of mines in Transylvania, concluded that the ore was bismuth sulfide. However, the following year, he reported that this was erroneous and that the ore contained mostly gold and an unknown metal very similar to antimony. After three years of work Müller determined the specific gravity of the mineral and noted the radish-like smell of the white smoke evolved when the new metal was heated. Nevertheless, he was not able to identify this metal and gave it the names aurum paradoxium and metallum problematicum , as it did not show the properties predicted for the expected antimony.

A stamp showing Hungarian mineralogist Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein (1742 - 1825).

In 1789 Kitaibel ( [link] ) also discovered the element independently in an ore from Deutsch-Pilsen which had been regarded as argentiferous molybdenite , but later he gave the credit to Müller. In 1798, the name was chosen by Klaproth ( [link] ) who earlier isolated it from the mineral calaverite.

Hungarian botanist and chemist Pál Kitaibel (1757 - 1817).
Figure. German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743 –1817).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Good
waht is hydrating power of lithium carbonates
Mahar Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of the main group elements. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11124/1.25
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