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The photo shows a skull that looks similar to a human skull but has prominent brow ridges.
Homo erectus had a prominent brow and a nose that pointed downward rather than forward.

Humans: Homo sapiens

A number of species, sometimes called archaic Homo sapiens , apparently evolved from H . erectus starting about 500,000 years ago. These species include Homo heidelbergensis , Homo rhodesiensis , and Homo neanderthalensis . These archaic H . sapiens had a brain size similar to that of modern humans, averaging 1,200–1,400 cubic centimeters. They differed from modern humans by having a thick skull, a prominent brow ridge, and a receding chin. Some of these species survived until 30,000–10,000 years ago, overlapping with modern humans ( [link] ).

The illustration shows a very human looking Neanderthal wearing fur and cutting a hide with a stone tool.
The Homo neanderthalensis used tools and may have worn clothing.

There is considerable debate about the origins of anatomically modern humans or Homo sapiens sapiens    . As discussed earlier, H . erectus migrated out of Africa and into Asia and Europe in the first major wave of migration about 1.5 million years ago. It is thought that modern humans arose in Africa from H . erectus and migrated out of Africa about 100,000 years ago in a second major migration wave. Then, modern humans replaced H . erectus species that had migrated into Asia and Europe in the first wave.

This evolutionary timeline is supported by molecular evidence. One approach to studying the origins of modern humans is to examine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from populations around the world. Because a fetus develops from an egg containing its mother’s mitochondria (which have their own, non-nuclear DNA), mtDNA is passed entirely through the maternal line. Mutations in mtDNA can now be used to estimate the timeline of genetic divergence. The resulting evidence suggests that all modern humans have mtDNA inherited from a common ancestor that lived in Africa about 160,000 years ago. Another approach to the molecular understanding of human evolution is to examine the Y chromosome, which is passed from father to son. This evidence suggests that all men today inherited a Y chromosome from a male that lived in Africa about 140,000 years ago.

Section summary

All primate species possess adaptations for climbing trees, as they all probably descended from tree-dwellers, although not all species are arboreal. Other characteristics of primates are brains that are larger than those of other mammals, claws that have been modified into flattened nails, typically only one young per pregnancy, stereoscopic vision, and a trend toward holding the body upright. Primates are divided into two groups: prosimians and anthropoids. Monkeys evolved from prosimians during the Oligocene Epoch. Apes evolved from catarrhines in Africa during the Miocene Epoch. Apes are divided into the lesser apes and the greater apes. Hominins include those groups that gave rise to our species, such as Australopithecus and H . erectus , and those groups that can be considered “cousins” of humans, such as Neanderthals. Fossil evidence shows that hominins at the time of Australopithecus were walking upright, the first evidence of bipedal hominins. A number of species, sometimes called archaic H . sapiens , evolved from H . erectus approximately 500,000 years ago. There is considerable debate about the origins of anatomically modern humans or H . sapiens sapiens .

Questions & Answers

guy I need the answer of this question what occurs during photosynthesis
REAL Reply
Photosynthesis is the process that plants use to convert light into food. During this process, plants create carbohydrates starting with only carbon dioxide and water. Sunlight provides the energy that makes photosynthesis possible.
Stanley
@Stanley,that's how I could as well put it
Evans
what are different between genotype and phenotype
Martha Reply
what is light microscope and electronic microscope
Martha
what occurs during photosynthesis
Martha
what are importance of biology
Martha
what is the meaning of computer science
Martha
what is ecology
Adeyemo Reply
what is zoology
Adeyemo
zoology branch of biology that study animals
Moses
a branch of biology which deals with the study of animals
Anita
A plant is a living thing that grows in the earth and has a stem, leaves, and roots
Bello Reply
what is a plant
dalitso Reply
A plant is a living thing that grows in the earth and has a stem, leaves, and roots
Bello
a plant is an is a living thing that is classified under autothrops because it makes its own food through the process of photosynthesis .
Joanne
a plant is also known as autotropic category and a plant have root & stem
Anita
what is plant
Odion Reply
Plants are autotrophic
Baramox
Then animal are heterotrophic
Iyiola
what are organisms
Godfred Reply
Living structures
Aryavarta
living and non living which charectrised by different properties
Anita
organisms living and nonliving components of the environment with distinct xtics
Tony
the diagram below show how the blood of a human embryo flows close to the mothers blood in the placenta . which substances are represent at x in higher concentrations than at y
Joyce Reply
what is ecology
Odion Reply
what is cell
Odion
what is cell
Odion
Is the basic unit of life
Agatha
what's biology
Okebe
biology is the study of life
Ali
What is a cell
Awal Reply
What are tissues
Awal
A cell is the smallest unit of living organisms.
hamidat
Tissues are group of similar cells performing a particular function.
hamidat
how to pronounce the word cyanobacteria
siva Reply
Cyano then bacteria. look that "cyano" is just like "ciyano".
hamidat
explain the term transpiration pull
Tank Reply
water is mainly " pulled" through the plant and that the driving force for this process is transpiration from the leaves .This is also referred to as the cohesion- tension -transpiration pull model transport.
Vanessa
explain TRANSIOCATION and GUTATION
Tank
what Is corona
INGIEBE Reply
My brother go and ask GOOGLE😷😷😷
hamidat
Google it for the right answer. Corona is a virus which causes Novel Covid-19 disease that has been declared by WHO as a global or world pandemic.
Katlholo
Why is it called Covid-19?
Katlholo
jjwhat is. condinative system
Odion
joy
Odion
condinative system is the system that harmonize all the. different. part. of. the. body and make. them function as a. specific unit
Odion
Describe the process of protein sythesis?
Kizito Reply
Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis in animals.
hamidat
What is a ploidy level
Francis Reply
Ploidy refers to the number of chromosomes. We have 23 pairs of chromosomes in somatic cells. Sex cells are haploid thus 23 chromosomes vs. 46 Chromosomes.
Eric
Evolution is evolvement according to one's environment. Let's use humidity as an example. A person from a very cold environment would not be used to hot humid weather. But over time their body would slowly, slowly adapt.
Eric
Give me (3) types of biodiversity
Jay
Hi guys 🇧🇪
Namutebi
hello boy
Tedi
hi
INGIEBE
yes
amani

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Source:  OpenStax, Biology. OpenStax CNX. Feb 29, 2016 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11448/1.10
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