# 16.3 Simple harmonic motion: a special periodic motion  (Page 3/7)

 Page 3 / 7
$v\left(t\right)=-{v}_{\text{max}}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\left(\frac{2\pi t}{T}\right),$

where ${v}_{\text{max}}=2\pi X/T=X\sqrt{k/m}$ . The object has zero velocity at maximum displacement—for example, $v=0$ when $t=0$ , and at that time $x=X$ . The minus sign in the first equation for $v\left(t\right)$ gives the correct direction for the velocity. Just after the start of the motion, for instance, the velocity is negative because the system is moving back toward the equilibrium point. Finally, we can get an expression for acceleration using Newton’s second law. [Then we have $x\left(t\right),\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}v\left(t\right),\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}t,$ and $a\left(t\right)$ , the quantities needed for kinematics and a description of simple harmonic motion.] According to Newton’s second law, the acceleration is $a=F/m=\text{kx}/m$ . So, $a\left(t\right)$ is also a cosine function:

$a\left(t\right)=-\frac{\text{kX}}{m}\text{cos}\frac{2\pi t}{T}.$

Hence, $a\left(t\right)$ is directly proportional to and in the opposite direction to $x\left(t\right)$ .

[link] shows the simple harmonic motion of an object on a spring and presents graphs of $x\left(t\right),v\left(t\right),$ and $a\left(t\right)$ versus time.

The most important point here is that these equations are mathematically straightforward and are valid for all simple harmonic motion. They are very useful in visualizing waves associated with simple harmonic motion, including visualizing how waves add with one another.

Suppose you pluck a banjo string. You hear a single note that starts out loud and slowly quiets over time. Describe what happens to the sound waves in terms of period, frequency and amplitude as the sound decreases in volume.

Frequency and period remain essentially unchanged. Only amplitude decreases as volume decreases.

A babysitter is pushing a child on a swing. At the point where the swing reaches $x$ , where would the corresponding point on a wave of this motion be located?

$x$ is the maximum deformation, which corresponds to the amplitude of the wave. The point on the wave would either be at the very top or the very bottom of the curve.

## Phet explorations: masses and springs

A realistic mass and spring laboratory. Hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. You can even slow time. Transport the lab to different planets. A chart shows the kinetic, potential, and thermal energy for each spring.

## Section summary

• Simple harmonic motion is oscillatory motion for a system that can be described only by Hooke’s law. Such a system is also called a simple harmonic oscillator.
• Maximum displacement is the amplitude $X$ . The period $T$ and frequency $f$ of a simple harmonic oscillator are given by

$T=2\pi \sqrt{\frac{m}{k}}$ and $f=\frac{1}{2\pi }\sqrt{\frac{k}{m}}$ , where $m$ is the mass of the system.

• Displacement in simple harmonic motion as a function of time is given by $x\left(t\right)=X\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\frac{2\pi t}{T}.$
• The velocity is given by $v\left(t\right)=-{v}_{\text{max}}\text{sin}\frac{2\pi \text{t}}{T}$ , where ${v}_{\text{max}}=\sqrt{k/m}X$ .
• The acceleration is found to be $a\left(t\right)=-\frac{\mathrm{kX}}{m}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\phantom{\rule{0.25em}{0ex}}\frac{2\pi t}{T}.$

Calculate the work done by an 85.0-kg man who pushes a crate 4.00 m up along a ramp that makes an angle of 20.0º20.0º with the horizontal. (See [link] .) He exerts a force of 500 N on the crate parallel to the ramp and moves at a constant speed. Be certain to include the work he does on the crate an
What is thermal heat all about
why uniform circular motion is called a periodic motion?.
when a train start from A & it returns at same station A . what is its acceleration?
what is distance of A to B of the stations and what is the time taken to reach B from A
BELLO
the information provided is not enough
aliyu
Hmmmm maybe the question is logical
yusuf
where are the parameters for calculation
HENRY
there is enough information to calculate an AVERAGE acceleration
Kwok
mistake, there is enough information to calculate an average velocity
Kwok
~\
Abel
what is the unit of momentum
Abel
wha are the types of radioactivity ?
what are the types of radioactivity
Worku
what is static friction
It is the opposite of kinetic friction
Mark
static fiction is friction between two surfaces in contact an none of sliding over on another, while Kinetic friction is friction between sliding surfaces in contact.
MINDERIUM
I don't get it,if it's static then there will be no friction.
author
It means that static friction is that friction that most be overcome before a body can move
kingsley
static friction is a force that keeps an object from moving, and it's the opposite of kinetic friction.
author
It is a force a body must overcome in order for the body to move.
Eboh
If a particle accelerator explodes what happens
Eboh
why we see the edge effect in case of the field lines of capacitor?
Arnab
what is wave
what is force
Muhammed
force is something which is responsible for the object to change its position
MINDERIUM
more technically it is the product of mass of an object and Acceleration produced in it
MINDERIUM
wave is disturbance in any medium
iqra
energy is distributed in any medium through particles of medium.
iqra
If a particle accelerator explodes what happens
we have to first figure out .... wats a particle accelerator first
Teh
What is surface tension
The resistive force of surface.
iqra
Who can tutor me on simple harmonic motion
on both a string and peldulum?
Anya
spring*
Anya
Yea
yusuf
Do you have a chit-chat contact
yusuf
I dont have social media but i do have an email?
Anya
Which is
yusuf
Where are you chatting from
yusuf
I don't understand the basics of this group
Jimmy
teach him SHM init
Anya
Simple harmonic motion
yusuf
how.an.equipotential.line is two dimension and equipotential surface is three dimension ?
definition of mass of conversion
Force equals mass time acceleration. Weight is a force and it can replace force in the equation. The acceleration would be gravity, which is an acceleration. To change from weight to mass divide by gravity (9.8 m/s^2).
Marisa
how many subject is in physics
the write question should be " How many Topics are in O- Level Physics, or other branches of physics.
effiom
how many topic are in physics
Praise
Praise what level are you
yusuf
If u are doing a levels in your first year you do AS topics therefore you do 5 big topic i.e particles radiation, waves and optics, mechanics,materials, electricity. After that you do A level topics like Specific Harmonic motion circular motion astrophysics depends really
Anya
Yeah basics of physics prin8
yusuf
Heat nd Co for a level
yusuf
yh I need someone to explain something im tryna solve . I'll send the question if u down for it
a ripple tank experiment a vibrating plane is used to generate wrinkles in the water .if the distance between two successive point is 3.5cm and the wave travel a distance of 31.5cm find the frequency of the vibration
Tamdy
hallow
Boniface
Boniface
the range of objects and phenomena studied in physics is
Boniface